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See also:
U+5339, 匹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5339

[U+5338]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+533A]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 23 +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 尸金 (SC), four-corner 71711, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 154, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 347, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 81, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5339

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
pʰid
pʰid

Uncertain. Shuowen considers it to be an ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pʰid): phonetic  (OC *preːd, eight) + semantic  (to conceal) – unit of measuring cloth. refers to eight folds in one of cloth (two bolts of cloth), and refers to concealing the two ends of the cloth when rolling it up. This interpretation is not likely since the older forms evidently do not contain these components.

Various theories have been proposed based on the evidence from the bronze inscriptions:

  • Pictogram (象形) of folds in cloth (Lin, 1920);
  • Ideogram (指事): half of (“two horses”) – one horse (Zhang et al., 1996);
  • Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pʰid): semantic  (rock) + phonetic  (OC *qriɡ) or (MC pʰɨut̚). The phonetic component may be replaced with (OC *pilʔ) (not shown above).

Etymology 1Edit

Uncertain. Possibly related to Khmer ពីរ (pir, two) or Mizo phîr (double; forked; twin) (Schuessler, 2007).

Wang (1982) considers it to be cognate with (OC *piʔ, “to compare; to match”), (OC *pʰiːs, “to match; to pair”).

The meaning “four zhang of cloth” is probably a special application, but it is reminiscent of Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ləj (four) (ibid.).

Pronunciation 1Edit


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰi²¹⁴/
Harbin /pʰi⁴⁴/
Tianjin /pʰi¹³/
Jinan /pʰi²¹³/
Qingdao /pʰi⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pʰi⁴²/
Xi'an /pʰi⁵³/
Xining /pʰji⁵³/
Yinchuan /pʰi⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pʰi³¹/
Ürümqi /pʰi⁴⁴/
Wuhan /pʰi²¹³/
Chengdu /pʰi³¹/
Guiyang /pʰi²¹/
Kunming /pʰi⁴⁴/
Nanjing /pʰiʔ⁵/
Hefei /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pʰiəʔ²/
Pingyao /pʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /pʰiəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /pʰiɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /pʰi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /pʰi³¹/
Tunxi /pʰi⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pʰi²⁴/
Xiangtan /pʰi²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pʰiʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /pʰit̚¹/
Taoyuan /pʰit̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰɐt̚⁵/
Nanning /pʰɐt̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pʰɐt̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pʰit̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pʰɛiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pʰi²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /pʰik̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /fit̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (2)
Final () (48)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pʰiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pʰit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pʰjet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pʰit̚/
Li
Rong
/pʰiĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/pʰĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pʰi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
pi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjit ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰi[t]/
English one of a pair

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9737
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pʰid/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. to match; to be equal
      ―  pèi  ―  to match
    /   ―    ―  to be equal
  2. match; equal; opponent
  3. mate; spouse
  4. single; one
  5. four zhang of cloth
  6. Classifier for bolts of cloth.
  7. (Sichuan) Classifier for flat surfaces or objects (hillside, leaves, tiles, etc.).
  8. (Sichuan) Classifier for long, thin objects (bones, feathers, grass, bamboo strips, etc.).
  9. (Sichuan) Classifier for pieces or lumps (bricks, etc.).
  10. (Sichuan) Classifier for mountains.
  11. A surname​.
CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰi²¹⁴/
Harbin /pʰi⁴⁴/
Tianjin /pʰi¹³/
Jinan /pʰi²¹³/
Qingdao /pʰi⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pʰi⁴²/
Xi'an /pʰi⁵³/
Xining /pʰji⁵³/
Yinchuan /pʰi⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pʰi³¹/
Ürümqi /pʰi⁴⁴/
Wuhan /pʰi²¹³/
Chengdu /pʰi³¹/
Guiyang /pʰi²¹/
Kunming /pʰi⁴⁴/
Nanjing /pʰiʔ⁵/
Hefei /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pʰiəʔ²/
Pingyao /pʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /pʰiəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /pʰiɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /pʰiəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /pʰi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /pʰi³¹/
Tunxi /pʰi⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pʰi²⁴/
Xiangtan /pʰi²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pʰiʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /pʰit̚¹/
Taoyuan /pʰit̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰɐt̚⁵/
Nanning /pʰɐt̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pʰɐt̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pʰit̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pʰɛiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pʰi²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /pʰik̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /fit̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (2)
Final () (48)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pʰiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pʰit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pʰjet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pʰit̚/
Li
Rong
/pʰiĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/pʰĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pʰi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
pi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjit ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰi[t]/
English one of a pair

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9737
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pʰid/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. Classifier for horses, donkeys, mules, etc.
  2. (dialectal, including Sichuan) Classifier for animals.
  3. (colloquial) horsepower
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana ひき, rōmaji -hiki)

  1. small animals
     (いぬ)一匹 (いっぴき)います。
    Inu ga ippiki imasu.
    There is one dog.
    猫三 (ねこさん) (びき) ()っています。
    Neko sanbiki o katte imasu.
    I have three cats.
  2. rolls of cloth
  3. in the past, numbers of  (せん) (sen)

Usage notesEdit

Depending on the preceding word, -hiki may change via euphony to become -biki or -piki.

The counter for larger animals, such as livestock, is usually (, head).

Alternative formsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(pil, mok) (hangeul , , revised pil, mok, McCune-Reischauer p'il, mok)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thất, sất, , sớt, sứt, thớt)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.