See also: , , and
U+5148, 先
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5148

[U+5147]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5149]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 10, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹土竹山 (HGHU), four-corner 24211, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 124, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 260, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5148

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

EtymologyEdit

Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with Tibetan བསེལ (bsel, to protect (on a dangerous path); to escort), Chepang स्‍यालःसा (syalʔ‑, to lead; to go or do first; to open way) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • sîn - in 先生 (sîn-sâng).
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • sĕng - vernacular;
    • siĕng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • seng/suiⁿ - vernacular;
    • sin - vernacular (limited, e.g. 先生);
    • sian - literary.
    Note:
    • soin1/sain1 - vernacular;
    • sing1 - literary
      sain1 - Chaoyang, Jieyang.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕian⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    /ɕian²¹/
    Jinan /ɕiã²¹³/
    Qingdao /siã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /sian²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕiã²¹/
    Xining /ɕiã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕian⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕian⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕian⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕian⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /sien³¹/
    Hefei /ɕiĩ²¹/
    /t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
    Suzhou /siɪ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
    Hui Shexian /se³¹/
    Tunxi /siɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /siẽ³³/
    Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /sian⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sien²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sin⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬin⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sin⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sian⁵⁵/
    /siŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /siŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ³³/
    /sõi³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
    /ti²³/
    /tai²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /sen/
    Wang
    Li
    /sien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    sin1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sˁər/
    English first

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13458
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɯːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. first; ahead of time; before; beforehand
      洗手間 / 洗手间  ―  Wǒ yào xiān qù xǐshǒujiān.  ―  I need to go to the bathroom first.
      畢業 / 毕业  ―  Tā bǐ wǒ xiān bìyè.  ―  He graduated earlier than me.
      廁所 [Cantonese, trad.]
      厕所 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 jiu3 heoi3 ci3 so2 sin1. [Jyutping]
      I need to go to the bathroom first.
    2. first; preceding; prior
      Antonym: (hòu)
      /   ―  xiānshēng  ―  herald; sign
      /   ―  lǐngxiān  ―  to be in the lead
      兩日 / 两日 [Cantonese]  ―  sin1 loeng5 jat6 [Jyutping]  ―  day before yesterday; two days ago
    3. for the time being; for the moment
    4. (colloquial) earlier on; before; at first
    5. ancient
    6. deceased; late
        ―  xiān  ―  deceased father
    7. ancestor; forefather
        ―  xiān  ―  ancestor
    8. thing of utmost importance
    9. Short for 先生 (xiānshēng).
    10. Short for 先手 (xiānshǒu).
    11. (Cantonese) only then
      而家 [Cantonese, trad.]
      𰥛而家𰥛 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 fan3 dou3 ji4 gaa1 sin1 fan3 seng2 gaau3. [Jyutping]
      He slept so long that he only woke up just now.
      呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, trad.]
      呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei1 di1 sin1 hai6 coeng3 go1. [Jyutping]
      This is true singing.
    12. (Cantonese) first off
      / [Cantonese]  ―  nei5 maai5 zo2 mei6 sin1? [Jyutping]  ―  First off, have you even bought it yet?
    13. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 sin1 m4 tung4 keoi5 gong2. [Jyutping]
      There's no way I'm going to tell them. / No, I am not going to tell them. / They are the last person I would tell.
    14. A surname​.
    Usage notesEdit
    • (first; beforehand): In Standard Mandarin, comes before the verb; in Cantonese, Teochew and Southeast Asian Mandarin, comes after the verb (and elements such as verb aspect and verb object).
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /senH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /senH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛnH/
    Li
    Rong
    /senH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sienH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sienH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiàn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    sin3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ senH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sˁər-s/
    English go first

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13467
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɯːns/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to guide; to initiate
    2. to be earlier
    3. to surpass
    4. originally
    5. to introduce
    6. term of address for one's elder brother's wife

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 先馬先马.

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さき
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese. Cognate with (saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (さき) (saki

    1. before, previous
      Synonym: 先に (saki ni, adverb)
      どっち(さき)か。
      Dotchi ga saki ka.
      Which one was first?
    2. end, tip
      ()(さき)
      ya no saki
      tip of an arrow
    3. earlier, the past
    4. afterwards, the future
    5. the destination of a motion or action
      送信(てんしん)(さき)
      tenshin-saki
      recipient
      バイト(さき)
      baito-saki
      workplace (of a part-time job)
      ()(さき)不明(ふめい)
      yuki-saki fumei
      whereabouts unknown
      (かえ)(さき)
      o-kaeri-saki
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    6. sequel
    7. ahead, in front
      その(さき)(もり)(おく)
      Sono saki wa mori no oku.
      What lies beyond there is the heart of the forest.
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    せん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC sen, senH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (せん) (sen

    1. before, previous
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC sen).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 먼저 (meonjeo seon))

    1. Hanja form? of (first; foremost).
    2. Hanja form? of (former; previous).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC seiX).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 전구(前驅) (jeongu se))

    1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to lead; to guide).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: tiên (()(tiền)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tiến[5]
    : Nôm readings: tiên[1][2][3][4][6], tên[1], ten[3], teng[3]

    1. Hán tự form of tiên (first; prior; before).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit