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ChineseEdit

day; sky; heaven
 
under; next; lower; below; underneath; down(wards); to go down; latter
simp. and trad.
(天下)
Literally: “under heaven”.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
天下 (Written Standard Chinese?)
Tianxia (English)

EtymologyEdit

See All under Heaven.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
Initial () (6) (33) (33)
Final () (85) (98) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () IV II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān xià xià

NounEdit

天下

  1. (figuratively) the world; everything under the sky; all under heaven
  2. (lofty) China
  3. (figuratively) state power; domination

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (天下):

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

天下 (hiragana てんか, rōmaji tenka)

  1. the whole world, the earth
  2. the whole country, all of Japan
  3. the government of Japan
  4. power, control over the government
  5. (historical, Edo period) the shogun
  6. (card games) in traditional Japanese card games, one of the strong cards known as (aza)
  7. short for 天下一 (tenka ichi): the best in the world (often used attributively with the particle (no))
     (てん) () (よこ) (づな)
    tenka no yokozuna
    the best yokozuna in the world

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The go'on, so likely the earlier borrowing.[1]

Appears with this reading in the Kagerō Nikki, dating to roughly 974 CE.[2] Superseded in modern Japanese by tenka above.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

天下 (hiragana てんげ, rōmaji tenge)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the world, the earth

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

天下 (cheonha) (hangeul 천하)

  1. Hanja form? of 천하 (world, earth; China).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

天下

  1. Hán tự form of thiên hạ, “world”