Template:es-conj


Usage

This template creates a conjugation table for all Spanish verbs.

This template should be placed in a conjugation section, headed by a ====Conjugation==== section header. The template automatically categorizes the entry into the appropriate Spanish verb subcategory (e.g. Category:Spanish verbs ending in -ar). If the verb has vowel or consonant alternations, it will be categorized appropriately (e.g. Category:Spanish verbs with e-ie alternation or Category:Spanish verbs with c-zc alternation), and if the verb is irregular, it will be categorized into Category:Spanish irregular verbs.

Basic usage

This template has no required parameters. For regular verbs, including verbs with predictable spelling alternations, no parameters are necessary. Certain verbs require one or more indicators to be given inside of angle brackets (<...>). For example, a verb such as contar with an o-ue alternation requires the <ue> indicator to be given:

{{es-conj|<ue>}}

You can also specify the verb explicitly, e.g. {{es-conj|contar<ue>}}, or just e.g. {{es-conj|cantar}} if no indicators need to be given. This is useful to conjugate a verb that is different from the pagename of the entry in question, e.g. to give the conjugation of the verb aburrirse on the page aburrir.

Examples

Regular verbs, including those with consonant alternations

1. The verb cantar (to sing) is fully regular. Use as follows:

{{es-conj}}

which produces


2. The verb pagar (to pay) is regular other than having a predictable spelling change in the preterite pagué. This is handled automatically, so no parameters are needed. Use as follows:

{{es-conj}}

which produces


3. The verb concluir (to conclude) is regular other than having a predictable change in the present concluyo. This is handled automatically, so no parameters are needed. Use as follows:

{{es-conj}}

which produces


Verbs with vowel alternations

1. The verb perder (to lose) is regular other than having a vowel alternation in the present pierdo. This is not predictable, so an indicator must be given in angle brackets, in this case specifically <ie>. Use as follows:

{{es-conj|<ie>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


(Here and in the rest of this section we use |nocomb=1 to suppress the combined-form table, to avoid hitting a template expansion limit on the documentation page. In reality it is not necessary.)

2. The verb contar (to tell) is regular other than having a vowel alternation in the present cuento. As with perder, an indicator must be given in angle brackets, in this case specifically <ue>. Use as follows:

{{es-conj|<ue>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


3. The verb avergonzar (to shame, to embarrass) is regular other than having a vowel alternation in the present avergüenzo. It also has a predictable spelling change in the preterite avergoncé. Both vowel alternation and spelling change occur in the subjunctive avergüence. The same indicator <ue> as above should be given; the spelling changes from z to c and from u to ü when the vowel alternation occurs are handled automatically. Specify as follows:

{{es-conj|<ue>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


4. The verb regimentar (to regiment) is regular other than having an optional vowel alternation in the present: both regimiento and regimento are found. In case of multiple vowel alternations, separate the vowel alternation indicators with commas and use + to request no vowel alternation, as follows:

{{es-conj|<ie,+>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


5. The verb aislarse (to isolate oneself, to sequester (oneself)) is regular other than having a vowel alternation in the present me aíslo. The is specified using the indicator <í>:

{{es-conj|<í>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


This also shows the handling of reflexive verbs.

6. The verb licuar (to blend, to puree) is mostly regular, but in the present tense both licuo and licúo occur. To specify this, use <+,ú> (+ to request the non-alternating variant and ú to request to alternating variant):

{{es-conj|<+,ú>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


7. The verb jugar (to play) has an irregular vowel alternation u-ue in the present tense juego. The code <ue> still works in this case. Specify as follows:

{{es-conj|<ue>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


8. The verb sentirse (to feel) has a vowel alternation e-ie in the present tense me siento, and raising to i in various other forms, e.g. the third-person singular preterite me sintió and the gerund sintiéndome. For this, use the code <ie-i>, as follows:

{{es-conj|<ie-i>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


9. The verb conseguir (to get, to manage) has a vowel alternation e-i in the present tense consigo, as well as a predictable spelling alternation g-gu. As mentioned above, the spelling alternations are automatically detected, so only the indicator <i> for the vowel alternation needs to be given:

{{es-conj|<i>|nocomb=1}}

which produces


Irregular verbs

The module knows how to conjugate all irregular verbs, including compounds such as mantener and convenir, and no parameters are needed for them.

1. For example, the verb decir (to say) has various irregularities: present tense digo, preterite dije, past participle dicho, imperative di, etc. Specify simply as follows:

{{es-conj}}

which produces


2. The verb describir (to describe) has two alternative past participles, descrito (used in most places) and descripto (used in Argentina and Uruguay). The module knows about this, so specify simply as follows:

{{es-conj}}

which produces


Here, a footnote is automatically added to indicate the different usage of the past participle.

Defective verbs

Certain verbs are defective, i.e. are missing some forms. Indicators are available to specify this.

1. The verb neviscar (to sleet, to snow lightly) is an impersonal verb, with only 3rd-person singular verbs and no imperative. Specify as follows:

{{es-conj|<only3s>}}

which produces

Here, <only3s> means "only third-person singular".

2. The verb atañer (to concern) is defective and only 3rd-person forms and no imperative. Specify as follows:

{{es-conj|<only3sp>}}

which produces

Here, <only3sp> means "only third-person singular and plural".

3. The verb aterir (to numb with cold) is defective and is missing forms whose ending does not begin with an i (specifically, the stressed present tense forms and the entire subjunctive). To specify this, use the indicator no_pres_stressed:

{{es-conj|<no_pres_stressed>}}

which produces


4. The verb preterir (to leave out, to omit) is defective in the same way as aterir. In addition, the root vowel raises to i in certain forms, such as the third-person singular preterite pretirió and the entire imperfect subjunctive. This requires two indicators: no_pres_stressed as above, and i to indicate the vowel raising. When multiple indicators are required, separate them with a .:

{{es-conj|<i.no_pres_stressed>}}

which produces


Parameters

The allowed parameters are as follows:

|1=
Optional specification of the verb and/or indicators controlling unpredictable parts of the conjugation. See above.
|nocomb=1
Don't display the combined-form table, showing forms like amarme (to love me) and amándolo (loving him).

The following indicators are defined for vowel alternations:

  • +: Request the default form with no alternations. Useful primarily in verbs that can either have a vowel alternation or no alternation.
  • ie: Specify that a stressed e or i changes to ie, as in perderpierdo or adquiriradquiero.
  • ie-i: Specify that a stressed e changes to ie, and unstressed e raises to i in certain forms of -ir verbs, as in sentirsiento, sintió.
  • ue: Specify that a stressed o or u changes to ue, as in soltarsuelto or jugarjuego. This automatically generates üe when appropriate, as in avergonzaravergüenzo.
  • ue-u: Specify that a stressed o changes to ue, and unstressed o raises to u in certain forms of -ir verbs, as in dormirduermo, durmió.
  • i: Specify that a stressed e changes to i, as in vestirvisto.
  • í: Specify that a stressed i changes to í, as in confiarconfío or aislaraíslo.
  • ú: Specify that a stressed u changes to ú, as in continuarcontinúo or embaularembaúlo.
  • ye: Specify that a stressed e or i changes to ye, as in erraryerro.
  • ye-i: Specify that a stressed e changes to ye, and unstressed e raises to i in certain forms of -ir verbs, as in erguiryergo, irguió.
  • hue: Specify that a stressed o changes to hue, as in desosardeshueso or olerhuelo.

Use a dot, ., to combine a vowel alternation with one of the codes for defective verbs. For example, the stem vowel of nevar takes ie when stressed, and the verb is impersonal and only appears in the 3rd person singular, so its conjugation table is created with {{es-conj|<ie.only3s>}}.

Multiword expressions

For multiword expressions, place angle brackets after the verb(s) needing conjugation, with any indicators inside angle brackets as needed. This is not actually necessary if there is only a single verb that is the first word of the expression, as is common.

1. For example, for the idiom echar de menos (to miss), both of the following work and are equivalent:

{{es-conj}}
{{es-conj|echar<> de menos}}

which produce


2. The expression disparar primero y preguntar después (to shoot first and ask questions later) has more than one conjugated verb. Place angle brackets after each:

{{es-conj|disparar<> primero y preguntar<> después|nocomb=1}}

which produces

Here we specify |nocomb=1 to disable the combined-form table, which is cramped and unnecessary.

3. Normally, each word (including the verb) is autolinked separately. You can override the linking behavior by explicitly specifying links, as in pensar dos veces (to think twice), which can be written as follows:

{{es-conj|pensar<ie> [[dos]] [[vez|veces]]|nocomb=1}}

which produces

In this case, the singular of veces is explicitly linked. In this case, the word dos also needs to be explicitly linked; otherwise, it would not be linked in the resulting headword and inflections. The verb does not explicitly need a link, however, because verbs and uninflected portions of the expression are autolinked separately.

4. Another example is caer chuzos de punta (to rain cats and dogs, to bucket down), which is impersonal and requires an indicator specifying this:

{{es-conj|caer<only3s> [[chuzo]]s [[de]] [[punta]]|nocomb=1}}

which produces


5. Multiword subexpressions can be linked together if needed, as in the idiom cogérsela con papel de fumar (to nitpick, literally to pick it up with rolling paper):

{{es-conj|cogérsela<> [[con]] [[papel de fumar]]|nocomb=1}}

which produces

This example also shows that angle brackets should be placed after any reflexive or other clitic pronouns, which will be handled correctly.