See also: Bastard

English edit

Etymology edit

 
'ƿyllelm bastard' in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1066

From Middle English bastard, bastarde, from Anglo-Norman bastard, Old French bastart (illegitimate child), perhaps via Medieval Latin bastardus, of obscure origin.

Possibly from Frankish *bāst (marriage, relationship) + Old French -ard, -art (pejorative suffix denoting a specific quality or condition). Frankish *bāst derives from a North Sea Germanic variety of Proto-Germanic *banstuz (bond, connection, relationship, marriage with a second woman of lower status), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰendʰ- (to tie, bind) and is related to West Frisian boaste (marriage, matrimony), Middle Dutch bast (lust, heat), and more distantly to English boose (cow-stall). The term probably originally referred to a child from a polygynous marriage of heathen Germanic custom — a practice not sanctioned by the Christian churches.

Alternatively, Old French bastart may have originated from the Old French term fils de bast (packsaddle son), meaning a child conceived on an improvised bed (medieval saddles often doubled as beds while travelling). However chronology makes this difficult, as bastard is attested in Old French from 1089 (Middle Latin bastardus as early as 1010), yet Old French bast (modern French bât), though attested since 1130 with the meaning of "beast of burden", doesn't acquire the specific meaning of "packsaddle" until the 13c., making it too late to have given rise to the terms bastard and bastardus with this sense. The French Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales supports the Germanic theory further above as being most likely.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

bastard (countable and uncountable, plural bastards)

  1. (dated) A person who was born out of wedlock, and hence often considered an illegitimate descendant.
    Synonyms: love child, born in the vestry, illegitimate; see also Thesaurus:bastard
    • 1965, The Big Valley:
      Jarrod: Who are you?
      Heath: Your father's bastard son.
  2. A mongrel (biological cross between different breeds, groups or varieties).
  3. (vulgar, offensive or derogatory, sometimes referring specifically to a man) A contemptible, inconsiderate, overly or arrogantly rude or spiteful person.
    Synonyms: son of a bitch, arsehole, asshole; see also Thesaurus:git, Thesaurus:jerk
    Some bastard stole my car while I was helping an injured person.
    • 1997, South Park television program
      "Oh my God, they killed Kenny!" "You bastards!"
  4. (especially Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, endearing or humorous) A man, a fellow, a male friend.
    lucky bastard
    funny bastard
    Get over here, you old bastard!
  5. (often preceded by 'poor') A suffering person deemed deserving of compassion.
    Poor bastard, I feel so sorry for him.
    These poor bastards started out life probably in bad or broken homes.
  6. (informal) A child who does not know their father.
  7. (informal) Something extremely difficult or unpleasant to deal with.
    Life can be a real bastard.
  8. A variation that is not genuine; something irregular or inferior or of dubious origin, fake or counterfeit.
    The architecture was a kind of bastard, suggesting Gothic but not being true Gothic.
    • 1622, Francis Bacon, Bacon's History of the Reign of King Henry VII, Cambridge University Press, published 1902, page 62:
      There were also made good and politic laws that parliament, against usury, which is the bastard use of money...
  9. A bastard file.
  10. A sweet wine.
  11. A sword that is midway in length between a short-sword and a long sword; also bastard sword.
  12. An inferior quality of soft brown sugar, obtained from syrups that have been boiled several times.
  13. A large mould for straining sugar.
  14. A writing paper of a particular size.

Usage notes edit

  • (one born to unmarried parents): Not always regarded as a stigma (though it is one in e.g. canon law, prohibitive for clerical office without papal indult): Norman duke William, the Conqueror of England, is referred to in state documents as "William the Bastard"; a Burgundian prince was even officially styled Great Bastard of Burgundy.
  • (male friend): "Bastard" used as a term of endearment is particularly characteristic of Australian English usage. See Appendix:Australian English terms for people for more.

Antonyms edit

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Translations edit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adjective edit

bastard (comparative more bastard, superlative most bastard)

  1. Of or like a bastard (illegitimate human descendant).
  2. Of or like a bastard (bad person).
  3. Of or like a mongrel, bastardized creature/cross.
  4. Of abnormal, irregular or otherwise inferior qualities (size, shape etc).
    a bastard musket
    a bastard culverin
    1. Spurious, lacking authenticity: counterfeit, fake.
      • a. 1678 (date written), Isaac Barrow, “(please specify the chapter name or sermon number). Of Self-conceit”, in The Works of Dr. Isaac Barrow. [], volumes (please specify |volume=I to VII), London: A[braham] J[ohn] Valpy, [], published 1830–1831, →OCLC:
        that bastard self-love which is so vicious in itself, and productive of so many vices
    2. (of a language) Imperfect; not spoken or written well or in the classical style; broken.
  5. Used in the vernacular name of a species to indicate that it is similar in some way to another species, often (but not always) one of another genus.
    bastard gemsbok; bastard mahogany; bastard toadflax; bastard trumpeter
  6. (UK, Ireland, vulgar) Very unpleasant.
    I've got a bastard headache.
  7. (printing) Abbreviated, as the half title in a page preceding the full title page of a book.
  8. (theater lighting) Consisting of one predominant color blended with small amounts of complementary color; used to replicate natural light because of their warmer appearance.
    A bastard orange gel produces predominantly orange light with undertones of blue.

Translations edit

Interjection edit

bastard!

  1. (rare) Exclamation of strong dismay or strong sense of being upset.
    • 2001, Stephen King, “The Death of Jack Hamilton”, in Everything's Eventual, Simon and Schuster, published 2007, →ISBN, page 90:
      Jack says, “Oh! Bastard! I’m hit!” That bullet had to have come in the busted back window and how it missed Johnnie to hit Jack I don’t know.
    • 2004, Cecelia Ahern, PS, I Love You, Hyperion, →ISBN, page 7:
      “Yes, I’m hhhhowwwwwwcch!” she yelped as she stubbed her toe against the bedpost. “Shit, shit, fuck, bastard, shit, crap!”
    • 2006, Emily Franklin, Love from London, Penguin, →ISBN, page 212:
      “Isn’t she lovely?” Clem asks, hopefully rhetorically. “Oh, bastard. I’ve got to go—that’s my signal. []

Translations edit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Verb edit

bastard (third-person singular simple present bastards, present participle bastarding, simple past and past participle bastarded)

  1. (obsolete) To bastardize.

References edit

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

From Occitan bastard.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

bastard (feminine bastarda, masculine plural bastards, feminine plural bastardes)

  1. illegitimate (born out of wedlock)
  2. adulterated

Derived terms edit

Noun edit

bastard m (plural bastards, feminine bastarda)

  1. bastard (child born out of wedlock)

Further reading edit

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈbastart]
  • Hyphenation: ba‧s‧tard

Noun edit

bastard m anim

  1. bastard, love child (person born to unmarried parents)
    Synonym: levoboček
  2. bastard, mongrel (biological cross between different breeds, groups or varieties)
  3. bastard, asshole

Declension edit

Further reading edit

  • bastard in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • bastard in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old French bastard.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /bastard/, [b̥aˈsd̥ɑːˀd̥]
  • IPA(key): /bastar/, [b̥aˈsd̥ɑːˀ]

Noun edit

bastard c (singular definite bastarden, plural indefinite bastarder)

  1. crossbreed (an organism produced by mating of individuals of different varieties or breeds)
    Synonyms: hybrid, krydsning
  2. mongrel (someone of mixed kind or uncertain origin, especially a dog)
  3. (dated) bastard (person who was born out of wedlock)

Inflection edit

Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Middle English bastard, from Old French bastard.

Noun edit

bastard m (genitive singular bastaird, nominative plural bastaird)

  1. bastard

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
bastard bhastard mbastard
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Anglo-Norman bastard; equivalent to bast (illegitimacy) +‎ -ard.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈbastard/, /ˈbastaːrd/, /ˈbastərd/

Noun edit

bastard (plural bastardes)

  1. an illegitimate child, especially a noble one; a bastard
  2. a kind of fortified wine, often with spices added
  3. (rare) a heretic or sinner; one separated from one's deity
  4. (rare) a dog that isn't purebred; a mutt or mongrel
  5. (rare) a botanical tendril or offshoot

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • English: bastard
  • Scots: bastart, bastert

References edit

Adjective edit

bastard

  1. coming not from wedlock, coming from bastardy; illegitimate
  2. low-quality, inferior, imitation; of bad manufacture
  3. (rare) not purebred; of mixed lineage
  4. (rare) made using or incorporating fortified wine
  5. (rare) wrong, erroneous, incorrect

Descendants edit

References edit

Middle French edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old French bastard, from Late Latin bastardus.

Noun edit

bastard m (plural bastars, feminine singular bastarde, feminine plural bastardes)

  1. bastard (child born outside of wedlock)

Adjective edit

bastard m (feminine singular bastarde, masculine plural bastars, feminine plural bastardes)

  1. bastard

Descendants edit

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Medieval Latin bastardus, of Germanic origin, possibly Frankish.

Noun edit

bastard oblique singularm (oblique plural bastarz or bastartz, nominative singular bastarz or bastartz, nominative plural bastard)

  1. bastard (person conceived to unmarried parents)
    • 12th Century, Unknown, Raoul de Cambrai:
      Vos savez bien qe je sui de bas lin, [e]t sui bastars
      You know well that I am of low birth, and I am a bastard
  2. (derogatory, usually vocative) bastard (insult)

Adjective edit

bastard m (oblique and nominative feminine singular bastarde)

  1. bastard (conceived by unmarried parents)

Declension edit

Descendants edit

Polish edit

 
Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology edit

Borrowed from German Bastard or Italian bastardo, from Late Latin bastardus, from Frankish, possibly through Old French bastardus.[1][2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

bastard m pers

  1. (literary) bastard (person who was born out of wedlock, and hence often considered an illegitimate descendant)
    Synonym: bękart

Declension edit

Noun edit

bastard m animal

  1. bastard, mongrel (biological cross between different breeds, groups, or varieties)
    Synonyms: hybryda, krzyżówka, mieszaniec

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

adjective
noun

References edit

  1. ^ Mirosław Bańko, Lidia Wiśniakowska (2021) “bastard”, in Wielki słownik wyrazów obcych, →ISBN
  2. ^ bastard in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN

Further reading edit

  • bastard in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • bastard in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Italian bastardo.

Noun edit

bastard m (plural bastarzi)

  1. bastard

Declension edit

Swedish edit

Noun edit

bastard c

  1. a bastard (biological cross between different breeds, groups, or varieties)
  2. (dated, derogatory) a bastard (person born out of wedlock)

Declension edit

Declension of bastard 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative bastard bastarden bastarder bastarderna
Genitive bastards bastardens bastarders bastardernas

See also edit

References edit