ChineseEdit

 
middle; center; within; among; in; while (doing sth); during; China; Chinese; hit (the mark)
country; state; nation
trad. (中國)
simp. (中国)
anagram 國中国中
Literally: “middle country; central country”.
 
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PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Initial () (9) (28)
Final () (2) (132)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋ/ /kwək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋ/ /kʷək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋ/ /kwək̚/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋ/ /kwək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōng guo
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōng guó
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwng › ‹ kwok ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ/ /*[C.q]ʷˁək/
English center state (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
No. 17407 5547
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋ/ /*kʷɯːɡ/

Etymology 1Edit

This word referred to various states and regions throughout history:

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. China; the Middle Kingdom; Central State
    中國首都北京 [MSC, trad.]
    中国首都北京 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó de shǒudū shì Běijīng. [Pinyin]
    The capital of China is Beijing.
    現在中國旅行 [MSC, trad.]
    现在中国旅行 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā xiànzài zài Zhōngguó lǚxíng. [Pinyin]
    He's travelling around China right now.
    喜歡中國文學 [Taiwanese Mandarin, trad.]
    喜欢中国文学 [Taiwanese Mandarin, simp.]
    Nǐ xǐhuān Zhōngguó wénxué ma? [Pinyin]
    Do you like Chinese literature?
    中國和平崛起 / 中国和平崛起  ―  Zhōngguó hépíng juéqǐ  ―  China's peaceful rise
    中國社會科學院 / 中国社会科学院  ―  Zhōngguó shèhuìkēxuéyuàn  ―  the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    中國典籍英譯 / 中国典籍英译  ―  Zhōngguó diǎnjí yīngyì  ―  English translations of Chinese classics
SynonymsEdit
  • (China):
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

中國

  1. (archaic) royal court; imperial court; imperial household; imperial government
  2. (archaic) central part of a country (historically, commonly known as the capital city or the main region, where an emperor or other ruler resides)
    中國孟子 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    中国孟子 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Wǒ yù zhōngguó ér shòu Mèngzǐ shì. [Pinyin]
    I wish to give Mencius a house, somewhere in the middle of the kingdom.
  3. (archaic) within a country
  4. (archaic) region under direct rule of the emperor
  5. (archaic) the Central Plain (area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization)
    中國四夷 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    中国四夷 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE
    zhōngguó ér fǔ sìyí [Pinyin]
    to rule over the Central Plain and pacify the neighbouring foreign peoples
SynonymsEdit
  • (royal court):
  • (central part of a country): (archaic) 國中国中 (guózhōng)
  • (the Central Plain): 中土 (Zhōngtǔ), 中原 (Zhōngyuán), 中州 (Zhōngzhōu)

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (中國):

Others:

Etymology 2Edit

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (ちゅう)(ごく) (Chūgoku), from Middle Chinese 中國 (MC ʈɨuŋ kwək̚, “the central part of a country”).

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. (~地方, 地區) the Chūgoku region of Japan

Etymology 3Edit

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (なか)(くに) (Nakakuni).

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. Nakakuni (a Japanese surname)

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
ちゅう
Grade: 1
こく > ごく
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

Proper nounEdit

中國(ちゅうごく) (Chūgoku (kyūjitai, shinjitai 中国)

  1. Kyūjitai form of 中国: China

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

Proper nounEdit

中國 (Jungguk) (hangeul 중국)

  1. Hanja form? of 중국 (China).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. Hán tự form of Trung Quốc (China).

ZhuangEdit

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. Sawndip form of Cunghgoz