ChineseEdit

 
middle; center; within
middle; center; within; among; in; while (doing sth); during; China; Chinese; hit (the mark)
country; state; nation
trad. (中國)
simp. (中国)
anagram 國中国中
Literally: “middle country; central country”.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Initial () (9) (28)
Final () (2) (132)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋ/ /kwək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋ/ /kʷək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋ/ /kwək̚/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋ/ /kuək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋ/ /kwək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōng guo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung1 gwak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōng guó
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwng › ‹ kwok ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ/ /*[C.q]ʷˁək/
English center state (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
No. 17407 5547
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋ/ /*kʷɯːɡ/

Etymology 1Edit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Earliest attested on the Western Zhou bronze vessel He zun. See Names of China#Zhongguo.

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. China (a country in Asia; capital: Beijing)
    中國首都北京 [MSC, trad.]
    中国首都北京 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó de shǒudū shì Běijīng. [Pinyin]
    The capital of China is Beijing.
    現在中國旅行 [MSC, trad.]
    现在中国旅行 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā xiànzài zài Zhōngguó lǚxíng. [Pinyin]
    He's travelling around China right now.
    喜歡中國文學 [Taiwanese Mandarin, trad.]
    喜欢中国文学 [Taiwanese Mandarin, simp.]
    Nǐ xǐhuān Zhōngguó wénxué ma? [Pinyin]
    Do you like Chinese literature?
    中國和平崛起 / 中国和平崛起  ―  Zhōngguó hépíng juéqǐ  ―  China's peaceful rise
    中國社會科學院 / 中国社会科学院  ―  Zhōngguó shèhuìkēxuéyuàn  ―  the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    中國典籍英譯 / 中国典籍英译  ―  Zhōngguó diǎnjí yīngyì  ―  English translations of Chinese classics
SynonymsEdit
  • (China):
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

中國

  1. (Classical Chinese) royal court; imperial court; imperial household; imperial government
  2. (Classical Chinese) central part of a country (historically, commonly known as the capital city or the main region, where an emperor or other ruler resides)
  3. (Classical Chinese) within a country
  4. (Classical Chinese) region under direct rule of the emperor
  5. (Classical Chinese) the Central Plain (area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization)
SynonymsEdit
  • (royal court):
  • (central part of a country): (archaic) 國中国中 (guózhōng)
  • (the Central Plain): 中土 (Zhōngtǔ), 中原 (Zhōngyuán), 中州 (Zhōngzhōu)

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (中國):

Others:

Etymology 2Edit

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (ちゅう)(ごく) (Chūgoku), from Chinese 中國 (MC ʈɨuŋ kwək̚, “the central part of a country”).

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. (~地方, 地區) the Chūgoku region of Japan

Etymology 3Edit

Semantic loan from Sanskrit मध्यदेशे m sg (madhyadeśe, locative, literally in the Middle Country) (Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā; see Karashima, 2010) or मध्येषु जनपदेषु m pl (madhyeṣu janapadeṣu, in [the] central countries) (Abhidharmakośakārikā); as opposed to the 邊地边地 (biāndì, “borderlands; frontiers”), from Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit प्रत्यन्तिम (pratyantima) / प्रत्यन्त (pratyanta) or Pali paccantima. Cognate to the Pali majjhimesu janapadesu (locative, literally in the middlemost countries) in the text parallel to the Ekottara Āgama in the Pali Canon.

NounEdit

中國

  1. (Buddhism) "central countries"; lands with advanced civilization and other conditions helpful for teaching Buddhism

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
ちゅう
Grade: 1
こく > ごく
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

Proper nounEdit

(ちゅう)(ごく) (Chūgoku (kyūjitai, shinjitai 中国)

  1. Kyūjitai form of 中国 (China)

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

Proper nounEdit

中國 (Jungguk) (hangeul 중국)

  1. Hanja form? of 중국 (China).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. Hán tự form of Trung Quốc (China).

ZhuangEdit

Proper nounEdit

中國

  1. Sawndip form of Cunghgoz