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U+7B11, 笑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7B11

[U+7B10]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7B12]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 118, +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹竹大 (HHK), four-corner 88432, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 879, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25885
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1307, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 2950, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+7B11

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms


𥬇
𠺑
 
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Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sqʰows
*qoːwʔ, *qrow, *qrowʔ
*qoːwʔ, *qoːws
*qoːwʔ, *qrowʔ
*qrow
*qrow
*qrow
*qrow
*qrowʔ
*qrowʔ
*pa, *qu
*qos
*qoːwɢ
*qoːwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sqʰows): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *qoːwʔ, *qrow, *qrowʔ).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhiò - vernacular;
  • chhiàu - vernacular (used in some compounds, may also be considered literary);
  • siàu - literary.
Note: ciê3 - Chaozhou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjæuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siawH/
Li
Rong
/siɛuH/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiào
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiào
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjewH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s-l]aw-s/
English to laugh

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14621
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
𥬇
Old
Chinese
/*sqʰows/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to laugh; to smile
      ―  xiàoróng  ―  smile
    唔識 / 唔识 [Cantonese]  ―  m4 sik1 siu3 [Jyutping]  ―  never smiles
  2. to laugh at; to ridicule
    點解你哋成日 [Cantonese, trad.]
    点解你哋成日 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Dim2 gaai2 nei5 dei6 seng4 jat6 siu3 ngo5 gaa3? [Jyutping]
    Why do you guys always laugh at me?
  3. funny; amusing
    /   ―  xiàohuà  ―  joke (literally, “funny words”)
  4. (rare) A surname​.

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“to laugh; to smile”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing ,
Taiwan
Harbin
Jinan
Wanrong
Xi'an
Wuhan ,
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Chaozhou
Pinghua Nanning
Shehua Fu'an
Fuding
Luoyuan
Sanming
Shunchang
Hua'an
Guixi
Cangnan
Jingning
Lishui
Longyou
Chaozhou
Fengshun
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Danyang
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

See alsoEdit

  • (to laugh at): (cháo), (chī)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to laugh; laughter
  2. to smile; a smile

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
わら(い)
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 笑う (warau, to laugh; to smile).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (internet slang) w

NounEdit

(hiragana わらい, rōmaji warai, historical hiragana わらひ)

  1. a laugh, laughing, laughter
  2. a smile, smiling
Usage notesEdit

More commonly spelled with the okurigana, as 笑い.

The warai reading is more commonly associated with the laugh senses. The emi reading is more commonly associated with the smile senses.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
え(み)
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 笑む (emu, to smile; to bloom).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana えみ, rōmaji emi, historical hiragana ゑみ)

  1. a smile, smiling
  2. a bloom, blooming
  3. the opening of a nut or other fruit as it ripens
Usage notesEdit

More commonly spelled with the okurigana, as 笑み.

The emi reading is more commonly associated with the smile senses. The warai reading is more commonly associated with the laugh senses.

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana えみ, rōmaji Emi, historical hiragana ゑみ)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Likely related to the emi above.

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji e, historical hiragana )

  1. (in compounds) smile
    Used in compounds such as  () (がお) (egao),  () (ぐし) (egushi), and  () (つぼ) (etsubo).

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(so)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tiếu, téo)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.