Open main menu

Wiktionary β

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 女戈木 (VID), four-corner 22904, composition ⿱⿲)

ReferencesEdit


ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
ŋraːwɢs, *raːwɢ, *ŋraːwɢ
raːd, *raːwɢ, *reːwɢ
pqʰlaːwɢ, *raːwɢ, *reːwɢ, *pqʰloːwɢ, *roːwɢ, *roːwɢ
raːwɢ, *reːwɢ
rawɢ, *reːwɢ
qʰljawɢ
qʰljawɢ
lawɢ
lawɢ, *reːwɢ
lawɢ
reːwɢ
reːwɢ
reːwɢ
reːwɢ, *roːwɢ
qʰloːwɢ, *qʰloːwɢ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (string) +  (wood) – strings on a piece of wood, i.e. a wooden musical instrument.

The oracle bone form shows two strings connected to the wood. In the bronze inscriptions, a (OC *braːɡ) component was added in between the two strings, which may either represent the thumb (fiddling) or a phonetic part.

Etymology 1Edit

The etymological relationship between “music” and “joy” has been discussed in Wulff (1935) and Unger (1983). Unger draws comparison with the following semantic parallelism in Tibetan: རོལ་མོ (rol mo, music) and རོལ (rol, to enjoy; to amuse oneself; to play).

Also comparable is Middle Khmer leṅa (to play) and bhleṅa ((playing) music), whence Thai เล่น (lên, to play) and เพลง (pleeng, music).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 5hhiaq - “music”;
  • 5ngoq - only in the placename 樂清 in Zhejiang.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yuè
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuè
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤrawk/
English music

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 7683
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢ/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. music; tune; melody; song
    /   ―  yīnyuè  ―  music
  2. to play music; to sing
  3. musical instrument
  4. Short for 樂經乐经 (Yuèjīng, “Classic of Music”).
  5. A surname​.
CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lak̚/
Li
Rong
/lɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/lɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
luò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ lak ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˤawk/
English joy; enjoy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 7673
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raːwɢ/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. joyful; happy; glad
  2. enjoyable; fun
  3. happiness; joy; pleasure
    /   ―    ―  delight; pleasure
  4. lasciviousness; lechery; decadence
  5. to laugh; to smile
  6. to enjoy; to love
  7. A surname​.
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (90)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠauH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚauH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋauH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwH/
Li
Rong
/ŋauH/
Wang
Li
/ŋauH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋauH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤrawk-s/
English cause to rejoice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 7670
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢs/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Used in placenames.
    /   ―  Làotíng  ―  Laoting County, Hebei Province
    /   ―  Làolíng  ―  Laoling, Shandong Province

Etymology 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cure; to relieve”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 5Edit

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Used in certain words.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

HanjaEdit

(ak)

  1. music; tune; melody; song

Etymology 2Edit

HanjaEdit

(rak>nak)

  1. happiness; joy; pleasure

Etymology 3Edit

HanjaEdit

(yo)

  1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(lạc, nhạc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.