See also: and
U+6A02, 樂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6A02

[U+6A01]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6A03]
U+F914, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F914

[U+F913]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F915]
U+F95C, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F95C

[U+F95B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F95D]
樂 U+F9BF, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9BF

[U+F9BE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C0]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative formsEdit

  • In mainland China (for its traditional form based on Xin Zixing 新字形), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written , which is the historical form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan and Hong Kong (based on the Big5 encoding standard), the bottom component is written without a hook instead.
  • Three CJK compatibility ideographs exist at U+F914, U+F95C and U+F9BF. All three forms are the same as the form used in Korean hanja.

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 女戈木 (VID), four-corner 22904, composition ⿱⿲(GHJKV) or ⿱⿲幺⿻(T))

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 548, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15399
  • Dae Jaweon: page 936, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1280, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+6A02

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (string) + (wood) – strings on a piece of wood, i.e. a wooden musical instrument.

The oracle bone form shows two strings connected to the wood. In the bronze inscriptions, a (OC *braːɡ) component was added in between the two strings, which may either represent the thumb (fiddling) or a phonetic part.

EtymologyEdit

“music; joyful”
The etymological relationship between “music” and “joy” has been discussed in Wulff (1935) and Unger (1983). Unger draws comparison with the following semantic parallelism in Tibetan: རོལ་མོ (rol mo, music) and རོལ (rol, to enjoy; to amuse oneself; to play).
Also comparable is Middle Khmer leṅa (to play) and bhleṅa ((playing) music), whence Thai เล่น (lên, to play) and เพลง (pleeng, music).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 5hhiaq - “music”;
  • 5ngoq - only in the placename 樂清 in Zhejiang.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (10)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠʌk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚɔk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɔk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngok6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 4/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ˁrawk/
    English music

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 7683
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraːwɢ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. music; tune; melody; song
      /   ―  yīnyuè  ―  music
      /   ―  yuèduì  ―  band
      /   ―  zòuyuè  ―  to play music
    2. to play music; to sing
    3. musical instrument
    4. Short for 樂經乐经 (Yuèjīng, “Classic of Music”).
    5. A surname​.
    Usage notesEdit

    The surname (yuè) is different from the surname ().

    SynonymsEdit
    • (music):
    • 弦歌 (xiángē) (figurative)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (がく) (gaku)
    • Vietnamese: nhạc ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    luò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lok6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]ˁawk/
    English joy; enjoy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 7673
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raːwɢ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. joyful; happy; glad
      Synonym: (kuài)
    2. enjoyable; fun
    3. happiness; joy; pleasure
      /   ―    ―  delight; pleasure
    4. lasciviousness; lechery; decadence
    5. to laugh; to smile
    6. to enjoy; to love
    7. 24th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "joy" (𝌝)
    8. A surname​.
    Usage notesEdit

    The surname () is different from the surname (yuè).

    SynonymsEdit
    • (to laugh; to smile):

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Pronunciation 3Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (90)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠauH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚauH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋauH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋauH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋauH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋauH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngaau6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæwH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ˁrawk-s/
    English cause to rejoice

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 7670
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋraːwɢs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in place names.
      /   ―  Làotíng  ―  Laoting (county of Hebei)
      /   ―  Làolíng  ―  Laoling (county-level city in Shandong)

    Pronunciation 5Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to treat; to cure; to heal; therapy; treatment”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Pronunciation 6Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in compounds.

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    ReadingsEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠauH):

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠʌk̚, “music, singing”):

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚, “comfort, ease”):


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠʌk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅡᆨ〮 (Yale: ngák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 음악〮 (Yale: ùm-ák) 악〮 (Yale: ák)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 풍류 (pungnyu) (ak)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 노래 (norae ak))

    1. Hanja form? of (music; tune; melody; song).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 락〮 (Yale: lák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 ᄒᆞᆯ (Yale: nak-hol) (Yale: lak)
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 즐길 (Yale: culkil) (Yale: lak)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 즐길 (jeulgil) (rak)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 즐길 (jeulgil rak), South Korea 즐길 (jeulgil nak))

    1. Hanja form? of / (to enjoy; happiness; pleasure).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠauH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅭᇢ〮 (Yale: ngyów)
    Early Modern Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Juhae Cheonjamun, 1804 됴히 너길 (dyohi neogil) (yo)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 좋아할 (joahal yo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (to be fond of; to like).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lạc, nhạc

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