See also: and
U+6A02, 樂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6A02

[U+6A01]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6A03]
U+F914, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F914

[U+F913]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F915]
U+F95C, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F95C

[U+F95B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F95D]
樂 U+F9BF, 樂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9BF

[U+F9BE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C0]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative formsEdit

  • In mainland China (for its traditional form based on Xin Zixing 新字形), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written , which is the historical form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan and Hong Kong (based on the Big5 encoding standard), the bottom component is written without a hook instead.
  • Three CJK compatibility ideographs exist at U+F914, U+F95C and U+F9BF. All three forms are the same as the form used in Korean hanja.

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +11, 15 strokes, cangjie input 女戈木 (VID), four-corner 22904, composition ⿱⿲(GHJKV) or ⿱⿲幺⿻(T))

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 548, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15399
  • Dae Jaweon: page 936, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1280, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+6A02

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (string) +  (wood) – strings on a piece of wood, i.e. a wooden musical instrument.

The oracle bone form shows two strings connected to the wood. In the bronze inscriptions, a (OC *braːɡ) component was added in between the two strings, which may either represent the thumb (fiddling) or a phonetic part.

EtymologyEdit

“music; joyful”
The etymological relationship between “music” and “joy” has been discussed in Wulff (1935) and Unger (1983). Unger draws comparison with the following semantic parallelism in Tibetan: རོལ་མོ (rol mo, music) and རོལ (rol, to enjoy; to amuse oneself; to play).
Also comparable is Middle Khmer leṅa (to play) and bhleṅa ((playing) music), whence Thai เล่น (lên, to play) and เพลง (pleeng, music).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 5hhiaq - “music”;
  • 5ngoq - only in the placename 樂清 in Zhejiang.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yuè
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuè
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˁrawk/
English music

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 7683
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. music; tune; melody; song
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Xunzi, circa 3rd century BCE
    yuè zhě, yě. [Pinyin]
    Music, it's about joy.
    /   ―  yīnyuè  ―  music
  2. to play music; to sing
  3. musical instrument
  4. Short for 樂經乐经 (Yuèjīng, “Classic of Music”).
  5. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit

The surname (yuè) is different from the surname ().

SynonymsEdit
  • (music):

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (がく) (gaku)
  • Vietnamese: nhạc ()

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lak̚/
Li
Rong
/lɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/lɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
luò
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ lak ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˁawk/
English joy; enjoy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 7673
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raːwɢ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. joyful; happy; glad
    Synonym: (kuài)
  2. enjoyable; fun
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Dú yuè , yǔ rén yuè , shú ? [Pinyin]
    Which is the more pleasant — to enjoy music by yourself alone, or to enjoy it with others?
  3. happiness; joy; pleasure
    /   ―    ―  delight; pleasure
  4. lasciviousness; lechery; decadence
  5. to laugh; to smile
  6. to enjoy; to love
  7. 24th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "joy" (𝌝)
  8. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit

The surname () is different from the surname (yuè).

SynonymsEdit
  • (to laugh; to smile):

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (31)
Final () (90)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠauH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚauH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋauH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨwH/
Li
Rong
/ŋauH/
Wang
Li
/ŋauH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋauH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæwH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˁrawk-s/
English cause to rejoice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 7670
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːwɢs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to be fond of; to enjoy; to appreciate

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 4Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Used in place names.
    /   ―  Làotíng  ―  Laoting (county of Hebei)
    /   ―  Làolíng  ―  Laoling (county-level city in Shandong)

Pronunciation 5Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to treat; to cure; to heal; therapy; treatment”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Pronunciation 6Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Used in compounds.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of

ReadingsEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠauH):

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠʌk̚, “music, singing”):

From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚, “comfort, ease”):


KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 노래 (norae ak))

  1. Hanja form? of (music; tune; melody; song).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 즐길 (jeulgil rak), South Korea 즐길 (jeulgil nak))

  1. Hanja form? of / (to enjoy; happiness; pleasure).

Etymology 3Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 좋아할 (joahal yo))

  1. Hanja form? of (to be fond of; like).

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(lạc, nhạc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.