See also: -요
U+C694, 요
HANGUL SYLLABLE YO
Composition: +

[U+C693]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C695]




외 ←→ 우

Korean

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Etymology 1

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Particle

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(yo)

  1. For the verb-final particle, see the entry at (-yo).

Etymology 2

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First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean  (Yale: yo), derived from (i, this) with a yang vowel introduced for sound-symbolic diminutiveness.

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Determiner

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(yo)

  1. (diminutive) this (little)
    Synonym: (i, this, non-diminutive)
    Coordinate terms: (go, that, mesial diminutive), (jo, that, distal diminutive)
    애기 너무 귀엽다!
    Yo aegi neomu gwiyeopda!
    This baby is so cute!
    새끼 라고?
    Yo saekki-ga mworago?
    What did this little bastard say?

Etymology 3

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First attested in the Won'gakgyeong eonhae (圓覺經諺解 / 원각경언해), 1465, as Middle Korean ᅀᅭᇂ (Yale: zywòh), from Late Middle Chinese (MC nyowk). Whether Korean lenited the final -k̚ to -h as part of its general leniting process, or whether the Middle Chinese source was a late variety that had already lenited the plosive codas to or which was then borrowed as -h, is disputed.[1]

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Noun

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(yo)

  1. a blanket on which one sleeps, often used in Korea in lieu of beds
Derived terms
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  • 담요 (damyo, blanket (in general))

Etymology 4

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Sino-Korean word from (necessary).

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Noun

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(yo) (hanja )

  1. Synonym of 요지(要旨) (yoji( 要旨 ), main idea)

Prefix

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요— (yo-) (hanja )

  1. (formal) required, necessary
    보호아동
    yobohoadong
    at-risk children
    (literally, “children in need of protection”)

Suffix

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—요 (-yo) (hanja )

  1. (formal, written) required, necessary
    신분증 지참
    sinbunjeung jicham yo
    required to bring proof of identity

Usage notes

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The prefix is not spaced, but the suffix often is.

Derived terms

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Etymology 5

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Sino-Korean word from 尿 (urine).

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Noun

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South Korean
Standard Language
요(尿) (yo)
North Korean
Standard Language
뇨(尿) (nyo)

(yo) (hanja 尿)

  1. (formal, academic) urine
    Synonym: 오줌 (ojum, usual non-academic term)
    과다하게 나타나고 습니다.
    Yo-e dang-i gwadahage natanago itseumnida.
    An excessive quantity of sugar is appearing in the urine.
Derived terms
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Etymology 6

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Sino-Korean word from (the Liao).

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?Yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?Yo
McCune–Reischauer?Yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Proper noun

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South Korean
Standard Language
요(遼) (Yo)
North Korean
Standard Language
료(遼) (Ryo)

(Yo) (hanja )

  1. (formal) the Liao, a medieval Khitan empire
    Synonym: 요나라 (Yonara, the Liao, usual non-academic term)
Usage notes
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  • As with all historical Chinese polities with a single-character name, the Liao are usually referred to with the suffix 나라 (nara, nation, country) as 요나라 (Yo-nara, the Liao country) outside of formal contexts.
Derived terms
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Etymology 7

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Sino-Korean word from (Emperor Yao).

Pronunciation

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Romanizations
Revised Romanization?Yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?Yo
McCune–Reischauer?Yo
Yale Romanization?yo

Proper noun

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(Yo) (hanja )

  1. Synonym of 요임금 (Yo-imgeum, Emperor Yao, legendary ruler of ancient China)
Derived terms
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Etymology 8

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Modern Korean reading of various Chinese characters, from Middle Korean (Yale: ), 요〯 (Yale: ), ᅀᅭ (Yale: zyò), or ᅀᅭ〯 (Yale: zyǒ).

Syllable

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(yo)

Extended content
  1. : important
    (eumhun reading: 요긴할 (yoginhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jiew|'jiewH))
  2. : song
    (eumhun reading: 노래 (norae yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  3. : shine, radiant
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yewH))
  4. : shake
    (eumhun reading: 흔들 (heundeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  5. : Emperor Yao
    (eumhun reading: 요임금 (yoimgeum yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ngew))
  6. : kiln for roof tiles
    (eumhun reading: 기와 굽는 가마 (giwa gumneun gama yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  7. : pinworm
    (eumhun reading: 요충 (yochung yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyew|'jiew))
  8. : high, towering
    (eumhun reading: 높을 (nopeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ngew))
  9. : cunning
    (eumhun reading: 요사할 (yosahal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jew))
  10. : waist
    (eumhun reading: 허리 (heori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jiew))
  11. 耀: shine, radiant
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: 耀 (MC yewH))
  12. : disturbance, commotion
    (eumhun reading: 시끄러울 (sikkeureoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyewX))
  13. : concave
    (eumhun reading: 오목할 (omokhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'eap))
  14. : pretty
    (eumhun reading: 예쁠 (yeppeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  15. : distant
    (eumhun reading: (meol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  16. : bent, curved
    (eumhun reading: 굽을 (gubeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyew|nraewH))
  17. : surround
    (eumhun reading: 두를 (dureul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyewX|nyewH))
  18. : by luck
    (eumhun reading: 요할 (yohal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ngew))
  19. : stubborn
    (eumhun reading: 우길 (ugil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'aewX))
  20. : die young
    (eumhun reading: 일찍 죽을 (iljjik jugeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jew|'jewX|'awX))
  21. : precious stone
    (eumhun reading: 아름다운 (areumdaun ok yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew))
  22. : sufficient
    (eumhun reading: 넉넉할 (neongneokhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyew|nyewH))
  23. : greet, encounter
    (eumhun reading: 맞을 (majeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC kew|'jiew))
  24. : calm, tranquil
    (eumhun reading: 그윽할 (geueukhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'ewX))
  25. : enjoy
    (eumhun reading: 즐거울 (jeulgeoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ngaewH|ngaewk|lak))
  26. : Alternative form of 耀
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yewH))
  27. : confused
    (eumhun reading: 어지러울 (eojireoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC xaw|nraewX))
  28. : slender
    (eumhun reading: 날씬할 (nalssinhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'ewX))
  29. : onomatopoeia of insect sounds
    (eumhun reading: 벌레 소리 (beolle sori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jiew))
  30. : hollow, cavity
    (eumhun reading: 우묵할 (umukhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'aew))
  31. : arid land
    (eumhun reading: 메마른 (memareun ttang yo))
    (MC reading: (MC khaew))
  32. : small
    (eumhun reading: 작을 (jageul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'ew))
  33. : corvee
    (eumhun reading: 역사 (yeoksa yo))
    (MC reading: )
  34. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 역사 (yeoksa yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew|yuw|drjuwH))
  35. : survey
    (eumhun reading: (dol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC kew|kewH))
  36. : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MC 'jewX))
  37. : irrigate
    (eumhun reading: (mul dal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC kew|ngewH))
  38. : catastrophe
    (eumhun reading: 재앙 (jaeang yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'jew))
  39. : deep, profound
    (eumhun reading: 깊을 (gipeul yo))
    (MC reading: )
  40. : sunken eyes
    (eumhun reading: 움펑눈 (umpeongnun yo))
    (MC reading: (MC 'aew|'ewX))
  41. : firewood
    (eumhun reading: 땔나무 (ttaellamu yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyew))
  42. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 두를 (dureul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nyewX))
  43. : sparrowhawk
    (eumhun reading: 새매 (saemae yo))
    (MC reading: (MC yew|yewH))

Etymology 9

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South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin. From Middle Korean (Yale: lyò) or 료〯 (Yale: lyǒ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (ryo) form.

In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (ryo).

Syllable

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(yo)

Extended content
  1. : count, measure
    (eumhun reading: 헤아릴 (hearil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewH))
  2. : cure illness
    (eumhun reading: 고칠 (byeong gochil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ljewH))
  3. : companion, coworker
    (eumhun reading: 동료 (dongnyo yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|ljewX))
  4. : distant
    (eumhun reading: (meol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew))
  5. : finish
    (eumhun reading: 마칠 (machil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lewX))
  6. : quiet, lonely
    (eumhun reading: 쓸쓸할 (sseulsseulhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lek))
  7. : government official
    (eumhun reading: 벼슬아치 (byeoseurachi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew))
  8. : torchfire
    (eumhun reading: 횃불 (hwaetbul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ljew|ljewX|ljewH))
  9. : knotweed
    (eumhun reading: 여뀌 (yeokkwi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lewX|ljuwk))
  10. : bright (of the eyes)
    (eumhun reading: 밝을 (balgeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewX))
  11. : at least
    (eumhun reading: 애오라지 (ae'oraji yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew))
  12. : loud, chatteringly
    (eumhun reading: 시끄러울 (sikkeureoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nraewH))
  13. : resonant
    (eumhun reading: (ul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewH))
  14. : play
    (eumhun reading: 장난칠 (jangnanchil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|ljewX|lewH))
  15. : govern, arrange
    (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewX))
  16. : bright
    (eumhun reading: 밝을 (balgeul yo))
    (MC reading: )
  17. : flood
    (eumhun reading: 큰비 (keunbi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lawX|lawH))
  18. : wind around
    (eumhun reading: 감길 (gamgil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewX|ljewX))
  19. : rice wine
    (eumhun reading: 막걸리 (makgeolli yo))
    (MC reading: (MC law))
  20. : silver
    (eumhun reading: (eun yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lew|lewH))
  21. : onomatopoeia for wind
    (eumhun reading: 바람 소리 (baram sori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ljuw|ljuwH))

Etymology 10

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South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin. From Middle Korean (Yale: nyò) or 뇨〯 (Yale: nyǒ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (nyo) form.

In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (nyo).

Syllable

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(yo)

Extended content
  1. 尿: urine
    (eumhun reading: 오줌 (ojum yo))
    (MC reading: 尿 (MC newH))
  2. : pretty
    (eumhun reading: 아리따울 (arittaul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC newX|nyewX|xewH))
  3. : mock
    (eumhun reading: 희롱할 (huironghal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC newX))
  4. : mud
    (eumhun reading: 진흙 (jinheuk yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nraewH))
  5. : curling upwards
    (eumhun reading: 간드러질 (gandeureojil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC newX))
  6. : big cymbal
    (eumhun reading: (jing yo))
    (MC reading: (MC nraew))
  7. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 예쁠 (yeppeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC newX))

References

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  1. ^ 신승용 (Shin Seung-yong) (2003) “/k/ > /h/ ()()()()() [Study on the /k/ > /h/ shift]”, in Gugeohak, volume 41, pages 93—122