See also: -요
U+C694, 요
HANGUL SYLLABLE YO
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:d-y

[U+C693]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C695]




외 ←→ 우

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

ParticleEdit

(yo)

  1. For the verb-final particle, see the entry at (-yo).

Etymology 2Edit

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean  (Yale: yo), derived from (i, this) with a yang vowel introduced for sound-symbolic diminutiveness.

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

DeterminerEdit

(yo)

  1. (diminutive) this (little)
    애기 너무 귀엽다!
    Yo aegi neomu gwiyeopda!
    This baby is so cute!
    새끼 라고?
    Yo saekki-ga mworago?
    What did this little bastard say?
    Synonym: (i, this, non-diminutive)
    Coordinate terms: (go, that, mesial diminutive), (jo, that, distal diminutive)

Etymology 3Edit

First attested in the Wongakgyeong eonhae (圓覺經諺解 / 원각경언해), 1465, as Middle Korean ᅀᅭᇂ (Yale: zywòh), from Late Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨok̚). Whether Korean lenited the final -k̚ to -h as part of its general leniting process, or whether the Middle Chinese source was a late variety that had already lenited the plosive codas to or which was then borrowed as -h, is disputed.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

NounEdit

(yo)

  1. a blanket on which one sleeps, often used in Korea in lieu of beds
Derived termsEdit
  • 담요 (damyo, blanket (in general))

Etymology 4Edit

Sino-Korean word from (necessary).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

NounEdit

(yo) (hanja )

  1. Synonym of 요지(要旨) (yoji, main idea)

PrefixEdit

요— (yo-) (hanja )

  1. (formal) required, necessary
    보호아동
    yobohoadong
    at-risk children
    (literally, “children in need of protection”)

SuffixEdit

—요 (-yo) (hanja )

  1. (formal, written) required, necessary
    신분증 지참
    sinbunjeung jicham yo
    required to bring proof of identity

Usage notesEdit

The prefix is not spaced, but the suffix often is.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Sino-Korean word from 尿 (urine).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?yo
McCune–Reischauer?yo
Yale Romanization?yo

NounEdit

South Korean
Standard Language
요(尿) (yo)
North Korean
Standard Language
뇨(尿) (nyo)

(yo) (hanja 尿)

  1. (formal, academic) urine
    과다하게 나타나고 습니다.
    Yo-e dang-'i gwadahage natanago itseumnida.
    An excessive quantity of sugar is appearing in the urine.
    Synonym: 오줌 (ojum, usual non-academic term)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Sino-Korean word from (the Liao).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?Yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?Yo
McCune–Reischauer?Yo
Yale Romanization?Yo

Proper nounEdit

South Korean
Standard Language
요(遼) (Yo)
North Korean
Standard Language
료(遼) (Ryo)

(Yo) (hanja )

  1. (formal) the Liao, a medieval Khitan empire
    Synonym: 요나라 (Yonara, the Liao, usual non-academic term)
Usage notesEdit
  • As with all historical Chinese polities with a single-character name, the Liao are usually referred to with the suffix 나라 (nara, nation, country) as 요나라 (Yonara, the Liao country) outside of formal contexts.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Sino-Korean word from (Emperor Yao).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?Yo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?Yo
McCune–Reischauer?Yo
Yale Romanization?Yo

Proper nounEdit

(Yo) (hanja )

  1. Synonym of 요임금 (Yo-imgeum, Emperor Yao, legendary ruler of ancient China)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 8Edit

Modern Korean reading of various Chinese characters, from Middle Korean (Yale: ), 요〯 (Yale: ), ᅀᅭ (Yale: zyò), or ᅀᅭ〯 (Yale: zyǒ).

SyllableEdit

(yo)

Extended content
  1. : important
    (eumhun reading: 요긴할 (yoginhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔiᴇu, ʔiᴇuH))
  2. : song
    (eumhun reading: 노래 (norae yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  3. : shine, radiant
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇuH))
  4. : shake
    (eumhun reading: 흔들 (heundeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  5. : Emperor Yao
    (eumhun reading: 요임금 (Yoimgeum yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ŋeu))
  6. : kiln for roof tiles
    (eumhun reading: 기와 굽는 가마 (giwa gumneun gama yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  7. : pinworm
    (eumhun reading: 요충 (yochung yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇu, ʔiᴇu))
  8. : high, towering
    (eumhun reading: 높을 (nopeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ŋeu))
  9. : cunning
    (eumhun reading: 요사할 (yosahal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠiᴇu))
  10. : waist
    (eumhun reading: 허리 (heori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔiᴇu))
  11. 耀: shine, radiant
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: 耀 (MC jiᴇuH))
  12. : disturbance, commotion
    (eumhun reading: 시끄러울 (sikkeureoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇuX))
  13. : concave
    (eumhun reading: 오목할 (omokhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠɛp̚))
  14. : pretty
    (eumhun reading: 예쁠 (yeppeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  15. : distant
    (eumhun reading: (meol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  16. : bent, curved
    (eumhun reading: 굽을 (gubeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇu, ɳˠauH))
  17. : surround
    (eumhun reading: 두를 (dureul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇuX, ȵiᴇuH))
  18. : by luck
    (eumhun reading: 요할 (yohal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ŋeu))
  19. : stubborn
    (eumhun reading: 우길 (ugil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠauX))
  20. : die young
    (eumhun reading: 일찍 죽을 (iljjik jugeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠiᴇu, ʔˠiᴇuX, ʔɑuX))
  21. : precious stone
    (eumhun reading: 아름다운 (areumdaun ok yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu))
  22. : sufficient
    (eumhun reading: 넉넉할 (neongneokhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇu, ȵiᴇuH))
  23. : greet, encounter
    (eumhun reading: 맞을 (majeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC keu, ʔiᴇu))
  24. : calm, tranquil
    (eumhun reading: 그윽할 (geueukhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔeuX))
  25. : enjoy
    (eumhun reading: 즐거울 (jeulgeoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ŋˠauH, ŋˠʌk̚, lɑk̚))
  26. : Alternative form of 耀
    (eumhun reading: 빛날 (binnal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇuH))
  27. : confused
    (eumhun reading: 어지러울 (eojireoul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC hɑu, ɳˠauX))
  28. : slender
    (eumhun reading: 날씬할 (nalssinhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔeuX))
  29. : onomatopoeia of insect sounds
    (eumhun reading: 벌레 소리 (beolle sori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔiᴇu))
  30. : hollow, cavity
    (eumhun reading: 우묵할 (umukhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠau))
  31. : arid land
    (eumhun reading: 메마른 (memareun ttang yo))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰˠau))
  32. : small
    (eumhun reading: 작을 (jageul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔeu))
  33. : corvee
    (eumhun reading: 역사 (yeoksa yo))
    (MC reading: )
  34. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 역사 (yeoksa yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu, jɨu, ɖɨuH))
  35. : survey
    (eumhun reading: (dol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC keu, keuH))
  36. : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠiᴇuX))
  37. : irrigate
    (eumhun reading: (mul dal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC keu, ŋeuH))
  38. : catastrophe
    (eumhun reading: 재앙 (jaeang yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠiᴇu))
  39. : deep, profound
    (eumhun reading: 깊을 (gipeul yo))
    (MC reading: )
  40. : sunken eyes
    (eumhun reading: 움펑눈 (umpeongnun yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ʔˠau, ʔeuX))
  41. : firewood
    (eumhun reading: 땔나무 (ttaellamu yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇu))
  42. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 두를 (dureul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ȵiᴇuX))
  43. : sparrowhawk
    (eumhun reading: 새매 (saemae yo))
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇu, jiᴇuH))

Etymology 9Edit

South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin. From Middle Korean (Yale: lyò) or 료〯 (Yale: lyǒ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (ryo) form.

In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (ryo).

SyllableEdit

(yo)

Extended content
  1. : count, measure
    (eumhun reading: 헤아릴 (hearil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuH))
  2. : cure illness
    (eumhun reading: 고칠 (byeong gochil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC liᴇuH))
  3. : companion, coworker
    (eumhun reading: 동료 (dongnyo yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, liᴇuX))
  4. : distant
    (eumhun reading: (meol yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu))
  5. : finish
    (eumhun reading: 마칠 (machil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leuX))
  6. : quiet, lonely
    (eumhun reading: 쓸쓸할 (sseulsseulhal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, lek̚))
  7. : government official
    (eumhun reading: 벼슬아치 (byeoseurachi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu))
  8. : torchfire
    (eumhun reading: 횃불 (hwaetbul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC liᴇu, liᴇuX, liᴇuH))
  9. : knotweed
    (eumhun reading: 여뀌 (yeokkwi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leuX, lɨuk̚))
  10. : bright (of the eyes)
    (eumhun reading: 밝을 (balgeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuX))
  11. : at least
    (eumhun reading: 애오라지 (ae'oraji yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu))
  12. : loud, chatteringly
    (eumhun reading: 시끄러울 (sikkeureoul yo))
    (MC reading: )
  13. : resonant
    (eumhun reading: (ul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuH))
  14. : play
    (eumhun reading: 장난칠 (jangnanchil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, liᴇuX, leuH))
  15. : govern, arrange
    (eumhun reading: 다스릴 (daseuril yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuX))
  16. : bright
    (eumhun reading: 밝을 (balgeul yo))
    (MC reading: )
  17. : flood
    (eumhun reading: 큰비 (keunbi yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lɑuX, lɑuH))
  18. : wind around
    (eumhun reading: 감길 (gamgil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuX, liᴇuX))
  19. : rice wine
    (eumhun reading: 막걸리 (makgeolli yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lɑu))
  20. : silver
    (eumhun reading: (eun yo))
    (MC reading: (MC leu, leuH))
  21. : onomatopoeia for wind
    (eumhun reading: 바람 소리 (baram sori yo))
    (MC reading: (MC lɨu, lɨuH))

Etymology 10Edit

South Korean reading of various Chinese characters in isolation or as the first element of a compound, and also the reading in most dialects in 1945, excluding Pyongan and Yukjin. From Middle Korean (Yale: nyò) or 뇨〯 (Yale: nyǒ). When preceded by another character in a compound, they retain the original (nyo) form.

In the North Korean standard, they are always read as (nyo).

SyllableEdit

(yo)

Extended content
  1. 尿: urine
    (eumhun reading: 오줌 (ojum yo))
    (MC reading: 尿 (MC neuH))
  2. : pretty
    (eumhun reading: 아리따울 (arittaul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC neuX, ȵiᴇuX, heuH))
  3. : mock
    (eumhun reading: 희롱할 (huironghal yo))
    (MC reading: (MC neuX))
  4. : mud
    (eumhun reading: 진흙 (jinheuk yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɳˠauH))
  5. : curling upwards
    (eumhun reading: 간드러질 (gandeureojil yo))
    (MC reading: (MC neuX))
  6. : big cymbal
    (eumhun reading: (jing yo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɳˠau))
  7. : Alternative form of
    (eumhun reading: 예쁠 (yeppeul yo))
    (MC reading: (MC neuX))

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 신승용 (Shin Seung-yong) (2003), “/k/ > /h/ ()()()()() [Study on the /k/ > /h/ shift]”, in Gugeohak, volume 41, pages 93—122