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U+51F9, 凹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51F9

[U+51F8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FA]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 17 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770)

  1. concave, hollow, depressed
  2. a pass, valley

AntonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • au - literary;
  • lap - literary (俗);
  • nah - vernacular (俗).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (152)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠɛp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚæp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔəɨp̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔɐp̚/
Wang
Li
/ɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔăp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ya
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 36 37
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
𨂁
Old
Chinese
/*qriːw/ /*qriːb/

AdjectiveEdit

  1. concave; hollow

AntonymsEdit

  • (, “convex”)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
おう
Grade: S
on’yomi

/apu//afu//au//ɔː//oː/

From Middle Chinese (/ʔˠɛp̚/). Compare modern Mandarin reading āo, Min Nan au.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(hiragana おう, rōmaji ō, historical hiragana あふ)

  1. concave
Usage notesEdit

The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
くぼ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as (kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider), (kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), (kuro, black), (kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くぼ, rōmaji kubo)

  1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
  2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
くぼみ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun stem of verb 凹む (kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of (kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ (mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる biru).[3]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くぼみ, rōmaji kubomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

The 凹み or 窪み spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
なかくぼ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of (naka, inside, inner) +‎ (kubo, pit, indentation).[3][1][4]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana なかくぼ, rōmaji nakakubo)

  1. a sunken center
  2. a place or object with a sunken center
Usage notesEdit

The 中窪 spelling is more common.

SynonymsEdit
  • 中低 (なかびく, ​nakabiku)

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
へこみ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Noun stem of verb 凹む (hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り (heri, noun stem of verb 減る heru, “to reduce, to decrease, to diminish”) +‎ 込む (komu, to go inwardly).[3]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana へこみ, rōmaji hekomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
  2. a mistake, and error
  3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
Usage notesEdit

The 凹み spelling is more common.

SynonymsEdit
  • (hollow): 窪み, , 凹み, (くぼみ, ​kubomi) (also see above)
  • (mistake): 失策 (しっさく, ​shissaku)
  • (mistake): 失敗 (しっぱい, ​shippai)
  • (at a loss): 困惑 (こんわく, ​konwaku)

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
ぼこ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ (bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

Alternately, may be compound of (bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る horu, “to dig, to dig out”) +‎ (ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ soko, “there” or 端っこ hashikko, “edge, end, tip”). Compare (deko, protrusion), likely a compound of (de, coming out) + (ko, place, suffixing element).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ぼこ, rōmaji boko)

  1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yo)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: yo, McCune-Reischauer: yo)
    • Name (hangeul): 오목할
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ao)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.