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DutchEdit

 
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Dutch sich, from Middle High German sich, from Old High German sih, from Proto-Germanic *sek. Old Dutch did not have a reflexive pronoun (only rarely in early Limburgish texts), but used the normal accusative pronoun (if necessary intensified by selven, cf. English himself). Although the use of zich in Holland-based Dutch was clearly triggered by written German, this development was assisted by the fact that the south-eastern dialects of Dutch had already adopted certain High German pronoun forms in much earlier times (cf. Limburgish ich, mich, dich, zich).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

zich

  1. himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves; (polite form) yourself, yourselves
    Hij wast zich. — He washes himself.
    Hij wast zich het gezicht. — He washes his face.
    Vergist u zich niet? — Aren't you mistaken? (polite)
    Ieder voor zich. — Every man for himself.
  2. expresses an unintended result with many otherwise non-reflexive, even ergative verbs
    Hij viel zich een ongeluk — He fell and this resulted in an accident.
    Hij lachte zich een bult — He laughed so severely that it left him a hunchback.

Usage notesEdit

  • Zich can be used whether the reflexivity of the verb is optional or mandatory. Optionally reflexive verbs can also take zichzelf as reflexive pronoun.
  • As in English (but unlike German and French), Dutch reflexive pronouns do not express reciprocity, except dialectally. Reciprocal senses may occur in fixed verb constructions, as in: Ze hebben zich verloofd. (“They have got engaged.”) Such cases are generally explainable by etymology. (In the example, the original sense is “They have promised themselves [to each other].”)

InflectionEdit


Derived termsEdit

See Category:Dutch reflexive verbs

Related termsEdit