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See also:
U+514D, 免
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-514D

[U+514C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514E]
U+FA32, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA32

[U+FA31]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA33]
免 U+2F80E, 免
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F80E
𠘺
[U+2F80D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 兔
[U+2F80F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

A variant form with rather than on top exists.

There is another variant, in which the left handed stroke is written as two separate components. This variant is adopted by Japanese shinjitai.

Han characterEdit

(radical 10, +5 in Chinese, 儿+6 in Japanese, 7 strokes in Chinese, 8 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓日竹山 (NAHU), four-corner 27416, composition⿸⿻丿(GHTK) or ⿳𫩏(JV) or ⿱⿸⿻丿(U+FA32))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 124, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1358
  • Dae Jaweon: page 264, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 270, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+514D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mronʔ
*mronʔ, *mronʔ, *m̥ʰons, *monʔ, *mons, *muns
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ
*mronʔ, *moːn, *muns
*m̥ʰos
*muːlʔ
*moːn
*moːn
*m̥ʰons
*monʔ
*monʔ
*monʔ, *mons
*monʔ, *mons, *muns
*muns

Pictogram (象形) – a man in a hat. Borrowed for abstract meanings. The derivative (OC *mronʔ) refers to the original word.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • miang2/miêng2 - literary (including “there is no need”, miêng2 - Chaozhou);
  • ming2/mêng2 - vernacular (mêng2 - Jieyang).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiᴇnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiɛnX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miænX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mianX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mjɛnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɛnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɛnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    miǎn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    miǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjenX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mr[o][r]ʔ/
    English avoid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9065
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mronʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to take off; to remove from the body
    2. to release; to set free
    3. to excuse from; to exempt
    4. to discharge; to waive; to forgive
    5. to dismiss from office
    6. to be not allowed; to be forbidden to
    7. (Min Nan) it is not necessary; there is no need
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 不用 (“need not”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 不必, 無須, 毋庸
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 不必, 毋須, 無須, 無須乎
    Mandarin Beijing , 不用, 甭用
    Taiwan 不用
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Xi'an 不用
    Wuhan 不消, 用不著
    Chengdu 不消
    Kunming 不用
    Yangzhou 用不著
    Hefei 不用
    Cantonese Guangzhou 唔使
    Hong Kong 唔使
    Taishan 唔使
    Dongguan 唔使
    Yangjiang 無使, 使乜
    Gan Nanchang 不消, 用不著
    Hakka Meixian 毋使
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 毋使
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 毋使
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 毋使
    Dongshi (Dabu) 毋使
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 毋使
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 毋使
    Jin Taiyuan 不用
    Min Bei Jian'ou 伓讓
    Min Dong Fuzhou 伓使
    Matsu 伓使
    Min Nan Xiamen 毋免, , 毋使
    Quanzhou 毋免,
    Zhangzhou 毋免, , 毋使
    Taipei 毋免,
    Kaohsiung 毋免,
    Penang 毋免,
    Chaozhou 免用,
    Wu Shanghai 勿要
    Suzhou 用勿著
    Wenzhou 覅用, 否用
    Xiang Changsha 不消
    Shuangfeng 不消, 不要

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (historical) Alternative form of (“a kind of mourning apparel”).
    2. bud

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana めん, rōmaji men)

    1. dismissal, being made to quit

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (myeon, mun) (hangeul , , revised myeon, mun, McCune–Reischauer myŏn, mun, Yale myen, mwun)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (miễn, mấy, mến, mém, mễm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.