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U+547D, 命
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-547D

[U+547C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+547E]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人一口中 (OMRL), four-corner 80627, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 183, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3473
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 604, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+547D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs
*riːn, *reːŋ
*riːŋ, *reːŋ, *reːŋs
魿 *ɡriŋ, *reːŋ
*mreŋs
*raːŋʔ, *reːŋ, *reːŋʔ
*reŋ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ
*reŋʔ
*reŋʔ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ, *reːŋ
*reŋʔ
*reŋs, *reːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ, *reːŋʔ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ
*reːŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (mouth) +  (order).

EtymologyEdit

Related to (OC *ren, *reŋ, *reŋs, *reːŋ, *reːŋs, “to order; to command; order”) (Wang, 1982). Both may be derived from (OC *meŋ, “name”): “name” () > “to name; to give (a name to)” () > “to order; to command” > “order; command” > “destiny; fate; lot” > “life” (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • meng6 - vernacular;
  • ming6 - literary.
Note:
  • miang - vernacular;
  • min - literary.
Note:
  • miâng - vernacular;
  • mêng - literary.
Note:
  • miā - vernacular;
  • bēng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mˠiæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/mᵚiaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/miaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/miajŋH/
Li
Rong
/miɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/mĭɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjængH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-riŋ-s/ (dialect: *m-r- > *mr-, *-iŋ> *-eŋ)
English command (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8275
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mreŋs/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. life; existence; state of living (Classifier: m c)
  2. lifespan; life expectancy
  3. destiny; fate; luck
  4. order; command; instruction
  5. to order; to command
  6. to give (a title, name to); to name

SynonymsEdit

See alsoEdit

  • 生活 (shēnghuó, “(personal aspects of) life”)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
いのち
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably a compound of Old Japanese elements (i, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (chi, spirit, force, soul).

Some analyses describe this as a compound using (i, life, breath, i in compounds, iki on its own) as the initial semantic element. This is equally valid, as (iki) and 生き (iki) are cognates.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana いのち, rōmaji inochi)

  1. life
  2. lifespan
  3. lifetime
  4. fate, destiny
  5. (figuratively) the most important part or aspect of a thing
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
みこと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (koto, word).[2] The mi prefix is generally limited to extremely high-status contexts such as gods or emperors.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

  1. the words or pronouncements of a god or an emperor

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
みこと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (koto, abstract thing, as opposed to , mono, “concrete thing”).[2][1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

  1. the honorable, the exalted
    Used as a title after the referenced noun when referring to gods, emperors, or other high-status persons.
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
      夜知富許能 迦微能美許登
      八千矛の神の
      やちほこのかみのみこと
      Yachihoko no kami no mikoto wa
      the honorable god Yachihoko
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book Book 20, No. 4408, poem {{{2}}})
      波々蘇婆能 波々能美許等波
      柞葉の母の
      ははそばのははのみこと
      hahasoba no haha no mikoto wa
      the exalted mother of the oak leaf
  2. the beloved, dearly beloved
    Similarly used as a title after the referenced noun.
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kami tsu maki)
      和加久佐能 都麻能美許登
      若草の妻の
      わかくさのつまのみこと
      Wakakusa no tsuma no mikoto
      dearly beloved young wife

PronounEdit

(hiragana みこと, rōmaji mikoto)

  1. you
  2. that person
Usage notesEdit

Used ironically from the late Heian period, expressing a sense of mild derision or ridicule.

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
めい
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (mjængH, command). Compare modern Mandarin (mìng, life, destiny, instruction).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana めい, rōmaji mei)

  1. fate, destiny
  2. life, lifespan
  3. order, command
SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(myeong) (hangeul , revised myeong, McCune-Reischauer myŏng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(mệnh, mạng, mình, mạnh, mịnh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.