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U+59BB, 妻
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59BB

[U+59BA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59BC]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十中女 (JLV), four-corner 50404, composition ⿱⿻)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 257, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 522, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1036, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+59BB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰiːl, *sʰiːls
*sʰiːl
*sʰiːl
*sʰiːl
*sʰiːl
*sʰiːl
*sʰiːl, *sʰil
*sʰiːl, *sʰiːlʔ
*sʰiːl
*siːl

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (hand) +  (woman) ― a man grabbing a woman's hair to show ownership (marriage by capture).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chhe - literary;
  • chhoe - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰei/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰiei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰiei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshej ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˁəj/
    English consort, wife

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9913
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰiːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. wife
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 妻子 (“wife”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 妻兒, 內人, 夫人, 娘子
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 妻子, 夫人, 太太, 妻室, 妻房
    Mandarin Beijing 女人, 媳婦兒
    Taiwan 太太, 老婆, 牽手
    Tianjin 屋裡的, 家裡的, 娘們兒
    Harbin 老婆, 媳婦兒, 屋裡的, 屋裡人兒, 老娘們兒
    Shenyang 老婆, 家裡的
    Hailar 媳婦兒, 老娘們兒
    Ulanhot 媳婦兒, 老娘們兒
    Tongliao 媳婦兒, 老娘們兒
    Chifeng 老娘們兒
    Bayanhot 老婆, 屋裡的
    Jinan 老婆, 媳婦, 女的, 家裡, 家裡的
    Muping 老婆, 媳婦, 家裡兒的
    Luoyang 女人, 媳婦兒, 屋裡的, 家裡
    Wanrong 老婆, 媳婦
    Xi'an 女人, 媳婦兒, 老婆, 婆娘, 屋裡人, 屋裡家
    Qingdao 老婆子
    Zhengzhou 媳婦
    Xining 媳婦, 婆娘, 家裡的
    Xuzhou 女的, 家下, 家來的, 家裡人, 媳婦兒
    Yinchuan 婆姨, 媳婦, 女人
    Lanzhou 女人, 媳婦, 屋裡的, 家裡的
    Ürümqi 女人, 媳婦兒, 央格子
    Wuhan 女的, 女將, 屋裡 dated, 屋裡的 dated, 屋裡人 dated, 家務 dated, 堂客 dated
    Huanggang 屋裡人, 屋裡, 堂客
    Chengdu 女的, 女人, 老娘兒, 婆娘
    Guiyang 女的, 女人, 婆娘, 屋頭人
    Guilin 老婆
    Liuzhou 老婆, 婆娘 dated
    Kunming 婆娘, 老婆, 媳婦, 女人, 家首
    Yangzhou 老婆, 媽媽, 堂客, 女眷
    Nanjing 女的, 女人, 老婆, 媽媽
    Hefei 老婆, 奶奶們
    Nantong 堂客, 女將, 奶奶, 老婆
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老婆, 女人
    Hong Kong 老婆, 女人
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 老婆
    Foshan 老婆
    Shunde 老婆
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 老婆
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 老婆
    Taishan 老婆
    Kaiping (Chikan) 老婆
    Dongguan 老婆
    Shaoguan 老婆
    Yunfu 老婆
    Yangjiang 老婆, 家下
    Xinyi 老婆
    Lianjiang 老婆
    Nanning 老婆
    Wuzhou 老婆, 燒火婆
    Yulin 老婆, 婦娘
    Hepu 老婆
    Danzhou 老婆
    Kuala Lumpur 老婆
    Gan Nanchang 老婆, 女客
    Lichuan 老婆, 女客
    Pingxiang 婆娘, 老婆
    Hakka Meixian 老婆
    Xingning 老婆
    Huidong (Daling) 老婆
    Qujiang 老婆
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 婆娜
    Luchuan 老婆
    Changting 老婆
    Pingyu 老婆, 餔娘
    Wuping 老婆
    Liancheng 婦娘
    Ninghua 老婆
    Yudu 老婆, 婦娘
    Ruijin 老婆, 婦娘
    Shicheng 老婆
    Shangyou 老婆
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 餔娘, 老姐
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 姐仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 餔娘, 老姐
    Dongshi (Dabu) 餔娘, 老姐
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 餔娘, 老姐
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 夫娘
    Hong Kong 老婆
    Sabah 老婆
    Senai 老婆
    Singkawang 老婆, 番婆
    Huizhou Jixi 老嫗
    Shexian 老婆, 堂客
    Tunxi 老婆
    Xiuning 老婆
    Yixian 老婆
    Qimen 婦兒家
    Wuyuan 老婆
    Fuliang 老婆, 婦人個
    Dexing 老婆
    Jingde 屋裡
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 老婆
    Jin Taiyuan 老婆, 家裡的, 女人, 婆姨
    Pingyao 老婆, 媳婦, 婆姨
    Xinzhou 女人, 老婆, 婆姨
    Baochang 老婆
    Jining 老婆, 媳婦
    Hohhot 女人
    Baotou 老婆, 媳婦
    Dongsheng 老婆
    Linhe 老婆, 女人
    Haibowan 老婆
    Min Bei Jian'ou 老媽
    Dikou 老媽
    Songxi 老媽
    Zhenghe 老媽
    Zhenqian 老媽
    Jianyang 老媽
    Wuyishan 老媽
    Shibei 老媽
    Min Dong Fuzhou 老媽, 諸娘儂, 厝裡, 𡚸
    Changle 老媽, 厝裡
    Fuqing 老媽, 𡚸, 厝裡
    Pingtan 老媽
    Yongtai 老媽
    Gutian 老媽
    Fu'an 老媽
    Ningde 老媽
    Shouning 老媽
    Zhouning 老媽
    Fuding 老媽
    Matsu 老媽
    Min Nan Xiamen , 牽手, 牽手的, 查某人, 厝內, 厝內人, 家內, 家內人, 家後, 內人, 內助, 婦人人, 柴耙, 老柴杮, 老柴㷮
    Quanzhou , 牽手, 牽手的, 查某人, 厝內, 家內, 家內人, 家後, 內人, 內助, 婦人人
    Zhangzhou , 牽手, 牽手的, 查某人, 厝內, 厝內人, 家內, 家內人, 家後, 內人, 內助, 婦人人, 內頭, 㾀菜籃
    Taipei 太太, , 牽手
    Kaohsiung 太太, , 查某人, 柴耙, 牽手, 牽的, 煮飯的
    Tainan 太太, , 查某人, 柴耙, 牽手, 牽的, 煮飯的
    Taichung , 家後, 牽手
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu , 家後, 查某人, 煮飯的, 柴耙
    Taitung
    Lukang , 查某人, 柴耙, 牽手, 煮飯的
    Sanxia 太太, 阮厝的查某人, 阿貼的, 後柴耙,
    Yilan 太太, , 查某人, 家後, 柴耙, 牽手, 牽的, 煮飯的
    Kinmen , 家內, 太的
    Magong , 牽手, 查某人, 姿娘, 夫人, 家內, 柴耙
    Penang , 查某人, 家後
    Singapore , 厝內, 厝內人
    Philippines (Manila) , 牽手, 牽手的
    Chaozhou 𡚸
    Shantou 𡚸
    Haifeng 𡚸, 㜁𡚸
    Johor Bahru 𡚸
    Wenchang 老婆
    Haikou 老婆, 妰娝 dated
    Leizhou 老婆,
    Puxian Min Putian 老媽
    Xianyou 老媽
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 老婆, 女人
    Guilin (Dahe) 老婆
    Wu Shanghai 老婆, 太太, 妻子, 夫人, 內人, 女人, 家主婆, 屋裡個, 屋裡
    Suzhou 女人, 家小, 家主婆, 家婆, 屋裡, 老婆
    Wuxi 老婆, 女人, 家主婆, 屋裡人
    Hangzhou 老婆, 老娘, 女人, 女的, 屋裡, 屋裡廂
    Wenzhou 老安, 老安人, 老人兒, 老人客, 老人, 屋裡
    Chongming 女個, 屋裡, 女客, 女人
    Danyang 女個, 老媽, 家裡
    Jinhua 老婆, 窩裡
    Tangxi 老媽
    Ningbo 老婆, 老𡢿, 女人, 屋裡人 dated
    Xiang Changsha 堂客, 內當家, 婆婆子
    Shuangfeng 堂客, 老婆
    Xiangtan 堂客
    Loudi 堂客, 婆娘, 老婆, 屋裡個, 他㑲娘
    Quanzhou 老婆

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰeiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰeiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɛiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰɛjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰeiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰieiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰieiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˁəj-s/
    English give as wife

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9923
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰiːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to give a wife to; to give as a wife; to become married to a man
    2. to marry a woman

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. spouse

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つま
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    From (tsuma, side, edge), indicating the person who is at the side of someone: a spouse.[1] Compare the English expression better half.

    This term originally referred to either a male (husband) or female (wife) spouse. In modern usage, this term refers only to a female spouse.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つま, rōmaji tsuma)

    1. (archaic) a spouse
    2. (humble, only refers to one's own) a wife (married woman)
      • 1999 February 15 [Jun 20 1983], Tezuka, Osamu, “第8話 未知への挑戦 [Chapter 8: Challenge of the Third Kind]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], volume 18 (fiction), 8th edition, Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, page 176:
         (せん) (せい)……………… (わたし) (つま) (うつく)しいでしょう?
        Sensei……………… watashi no tsuma wa utsukushii deshō?
        Doctor... Do you think my wife is beautiful?
        ああ!すばらしい () (じん)ですよ!
        Ā! Subarashii bijin desu yo!
        Sure! She’s a gorgeous lady!
        でしょう?なにしろ (さく) (ねん)のミス・イウレガだったのですから
        Deshō? Nani shiro sakunen no Misu Iurega datta no desu kara
        I know, right? She was last year’s Miss Iurega after all
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つま
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    By extension from the at the side sense.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つま, rōmaji tsuma)

    1. a side dish
    2. a tangent, a digression, something to the side of the main thing

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さい
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰei, t͡sʰeiH, “wife”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana さい, rōmaji sai)

    1. my wife
      • Isikawa Takuboku, Romazi Nikki
        Yo wa Sai wo aisiteru; aisiteru kara koso kono Nikki wo yomase taku nai no da.
        I love my Wife; it is precisely because I love her that I do not want her to read this Diary.
    Usage notesEdit
    • Used chiefly in written texts such as letters.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (cheo) (hangeul , revised cheo, McCune–Reischauer ch'ŏ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (thê, thế)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.