U+59BB, 妻
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59BB

[U+59BA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59BC]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十中女 (JLV), four-corner 50404, composition ⿱⿻)

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 257, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 522, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1036, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+59BB

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𪥼

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (hand grabbing hair) + (woman) ― a man grabbing a woman's hair to show ownership (marriage by capture).

Etymology edit

Thought to be cognate to (OC *dzêi, “same, equal (adj.), in line”) (SWJZ[1]; Karlgren, 1956) & interpreted as "an equal to her husband"; yet this is unlikely considering the realities of ancient societies (Schuessler, 2007).

Schuessler instead proposes Austroasiatic etymology: he reconstructs (OC *tshə̂i) < *k-sə̂i and compares it to Middle Khmer [script needed] (kansai, wife) (whence Khmer កន្សៃ (kɑnsay, wife)) and Khmer [script needed] (*khsay, be female) with *ka(n)- being a female marker (ibid.).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • chhe - literary;
  • chhoe - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter tshej
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰei/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰei/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛj/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰei/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰiei/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰiei/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cai1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshej ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˁəj/
English consort, wife

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9913
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰiːl/

Definitions edit

  1. wife
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Pronunciation 2 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter tshejH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰeiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰeiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛjH/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰeiH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cai3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˁəj-s/
English give as wife

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9923
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰiːls/

Definitions edit

  1. to give a wife to; to give as a wife; to become married to a man
  2. to marry a woman

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. spouse

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
つま
Grade: 5
kun’yomi

From (tsuma, side, edge), indicating the person who is at the side of someone: a spouse.[1] Compare the English expression better half.

This term originally referred to either a male (husband) or female (wife) spouse. In modern usage, this term refers only to a female spouse.[1]

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(つま) (tsuma

  1. (archaic) a spouse
  2. (humble, only refers to one's own) a wife (married woman)
    • 1999 February 15 [1983 June 20], Osamu Tezuka, “第8話 未知への挑戦 [Chapter 8: Challenge of the Third Kind]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], 8th edition, volume 18 (fiction), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, page 176:
      (せん)(せい)………………(わたし)(つま)(うつく)しいでしょう?
      Sensei……………… watashi no tsuma wa utsukushii deshō?
      Doctor... Do you think my wife is beautiful?
      ああ!すばらしい()(じん)ですよ!
      Ā! Subarashii bijin desu yo!
      Sure! She’s a gorgeous lady!
Synonyms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
つま
Grade: 5
kun’yomi

By extension from the at the side sense.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(つま) (tsuma

  1. a side dish
  2. a tangent, a digression, something to the side of the main thing

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
さい
Grade: 5
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC tshej|tshejH, “wife”).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(さい) (sai

  1. my wife
    • Isikawa Takuboku, Romazi Nikki
      Yo wa Sai wo aisiteru; aisiteru kara koso kono Nikki wo yomase taku nai no da.
      I love my Wife; it is precisely because I love her that I do not want her to read this Diary.
Usage notes edit
  • Used chiefly in written texts such as letters.

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tshej).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chyèy)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 겨〯집 (Yale: kyěcìp) (Yale: chyè)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 아내 (anae cheo))

  1. Hanja form? of (wife).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: thê, thế

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.