See also:
U+8001, 老
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8001
耀
[U+8000]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8002]
U+2F7C, ⽼
KANGXI RADICAL OLD

[U+2F7B]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F7D]
U+F934, 老
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F934

[U+F933]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F935]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 125, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十大心 (JKP), four-corner 44711, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #125, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 960, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28842
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1407, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2778, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8001

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (man) + (hair) + (cane) – a man with long hair (an old man), leaning on a cane. Compare top component to (OC *qʰruːs).

Cognate to (OC *kʰluːʔ); the most commonly cited example of 轉注 (“reciprocal meaning”).

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-raw (withered, residue, corpse), *rwat (stiff, tough), whence Burmese ရော် (rau, wither, become overripe; age), ရွတ် (rwat, old, stiff, tough). See also (), ().

An old Sino-Vietnamese borrowing is rệu (overripe, pulpy).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sē, la̿u, lo̤̿ - vernacular;
  • lǎu - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • lâu - vernacular;
    • lō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lāu/lǎu - vernacular;
    • láu - vernacular (sometimes considered literary);
    • làu - vernacular (limited, e.g. 老闆);
    • lǎ - vernacular (limited, e.g. 老鶚);
    • ló/ló͘/nó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • lao6 - vernacular;
    • lao2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lǎo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lou5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.rˁuʔ/
    English old

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7666
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ruːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (for persons, animate and inanimate objects generally) old; aged; elderly
      記憶力 [MSC, trad.]
      记忆力 [MSC, simp.]
      Rén lǎo le jìyìlì jiù chā le. [Pinyin]
      One's memory worsens when age increases.
    2. the elderly; one's elders
    3. (figuratively) experienced
        ―  lǎoshǒu  ―  an old hand
        ―  lǎobīng  ―  veteran
    4. to respect (the elderly, one's elders)
    5. (of cooked food) overcooked; tough; stringy; hard
      牛排 [MSC, trad.]
      牛排 [MSC, simp.]
      Niúpái tài lǎo le, wǒ yǎo bù dòng tā. [Pinyin]
      The steak was so tough I couldn't eat it.
      雞蛋掌握火候 [MSC, trad.]
      鸡蛋掌握火候 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè jīdàn zhǔ lǎo le, nǐ méi zhǎngwò hǎo huǒhòu. [Pinyin]
      This egg is hard; you didn't time it properly.
    6. (of food or potable liquids) stale; not fresh
    7. always; all the time
      這樣 / 这样  ―  Nǐ bié lǎo zhèyàng!  ―  Stop being always like this!
    8. (chiefly dialectal) very; quite
        ―  Tā rén lǎo hǎo le.  ―  He is such a nice person! [colloquial, somewhat regional]
      看到真個開心 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      看到真个开心 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [kʰø³³ tɔ⁴⁴ nʊŋ²³ t͡səɲ⁵⁵ ɡ̊əʔ²¹ lɔ²³ kʰe̞⁵⁵ ɕɪɲ²¹] [IPA]
      I am really happy to see you.
    9. (euphemistic, of an elderly person) to die; to pass away (usually with (le))
    10. (endearing, respectful) Used before surnames to refer to heads or elder members of families.
      (xiǎo) (for younger people)
      馬上趕緊收拾 [MSC, trad.]
      马上赶紧收拾 [MSC, simp.]
      Lǎo Zhāng mǎshàng lái le, wǒ děi gǎnjǐn shōushí yī xià wū zǐ. [Pinyin]
      Old Zhang is going to be here any minute. I need to hurry up and straighten the room up a bit.
    11. (usually respectful and endearing) Used by analogy in several other relationship terms.
      /   ―  lǎoshī  ―  teacher
        ―  lǎo  ―  wifey
        ―  lǎogōng  ―  hubby
    12. (obsolete, originally honorific) Prefix for animals or people considered senior, fierce, and often awe-inspiring.
      /   ―  lǎoyīng  ―  eagle
        ―  lǎo  ―  tiger
        ―  lǎoshǔ  ―  mouse, rat; (obsolete) bat
        ―  lǎoláng  ―  (rare) elder and experienced wolf
      /   ―  lǎomāo  ―  (rare) elder (potentially annoying) cat
      狐狸  ―  lǎohúlí  ―  (surviving usage) elder, cunning and experienced fox
      傢夥 / 家伙  ―  lǎojiāhuǒ  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
      東西 / 东西  ―  lǎodōngxī  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
      雜碎 / 杂碎  ―  lǎozásuì  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    13. (colloquial) Used before nouns, especially names of ethnicities, places and countries, to form nouns.
        ―  lǎowài  ―  foreigner; (pejorative) layman, one who lacks knowledge of a subject
        ―  lǎoměi  ―  Yank
        ―  lǎobiǎo  ―  a friend (direct speech, may be intimate or offensive depending on provinces)
      毛子  ―  lǎomáozi  ―  (pejorative) Russian person
      蒙古  ―  lǎoménggǔ  ―  (pejorative) Mongols
      北京  ―  lǎoběijīng  ―  indigenous Beijing person
      山東 / 山东  ―  lǎoshāndōng  ―  indigenous Shandong person
      西兒 / 西儿  ―  lǎoxīr  ―  (affectionate) Shanxi person
      回回  ―  lǎohuíhuí  ―  Hui person (affectionate in some cases, pejorative in other cases, never neutral, depend on the region, speaker, listener situation and speaking mood)
    14. (Mainland China, Hong Kong) Short for 老撾老挝 (Lǎowō, “Laos”).

    SynonymsEdit

    • (old):
    • (very):
    • (to die):

    AntonymsEdit

    • (old): (nèn)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Korean: / (, ro/no)
    • Vietnamese: lão ()

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. old age, an elderly person, the aged, the elderly

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑuX).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • (initial position)
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [no̞(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.
    • (non-initial position)

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 늙을 (neulgeul ro), South Korea 늙을 (neulgeul no))

    1. Hanja form? of / (to be old).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: lão[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: lảo[1][3][4], lảu[1][3][4], lão[1][2], lẽo[1][3], láu[3][4], rảu[3][4], láo[1], lạo[1], não[1], rau[1], sáu[1], lểu[2], lếu[3], lẩu[3]

    1. Hán tự form of lão (old; aged).

    ReferencesEdit