U+8001, 老
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8001
耀
[U+8000]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8002]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 125 +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十大心 (JKP), four-corner 44711, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #125, (old).

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 960, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28842
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1407, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2778, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8001

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ruːʔ
*ruːʔ, *maːʔ
*ruːʔ
*ruːʔ

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (man) + (hair) + (cane) – a man with long hair (an old man), leaning on a cane. Compare top component to (OC *qʰruːs).

Cognate to (OC *kʰluːʔ); the most commonly cited example of 轉注 (“reciprocal meaning”).

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-raw(withered, residue, corpse), *rwat(stiff, tough), whence Burmese ရော်(rau, wither, become overripe; age), ရွတ်(rwat, old, stiff, tough). See also (), ().

An old Sino-Vietnamese borrowing is rệu(overripe, pulpy).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lawX/
Li
Rong
/lɑuX/
Wang
Li
/lɑuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lǎo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ lawX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.rˤuʔ/
English old

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7666
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ruːʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. old, aged, elderly (for persons, animate and inanimate objects generally)
  2. the elderly, one's elders
  3. experienced
  4. to respect (the elderly, one's elders)
  5. overcooked, tough, stringy, hard (used in reference to cooked food or meat)
  6. stale, not fresh (used in reference to food or potable liquids)
  7. always, all the time
  8. (chiefly dialectal) very, quite
    (hěn)
  9. (affectionate, respectful) Used before surnames to refer to heads or elder members of families.
    (xiǎo) (for younger people)
  10. (usually respectful and affectionate) Used by analogy in several other relationship terms.
    • /   ―  lǎoshī  ―  teacher
    •   ―  lǎo  ―  wifey
    •   ―  lǎogōng  ―  hubby
  11. (zoology) Used before several animals considered noxious or unpleasant.
    •   ―  lǎo  ―  tiger
    •   ―  lǎoshǔ  ―  mouse
  12. (colloquial) Used before placenames, particularly countries, to form nouns.
    •   ―  lǎowài  ―  (pejorative) foreigner, furriner, whitey
    •   ―  lǎoměi  ―  (pejorative) American person, Yank
    • 毛子  ―  lǎomáozi  ―  (pejorative) Russian person

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. old age, an elderly person, the aged, the elderly

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ro>no) (hangeul >, revised ro>no, McCune-Reischauer ro>no, Yale lo>no)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(lão, láu, lảo, lảu, rảu, lẩu, lẽo, lếu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.