U+96E8, 雨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96E8

[U+96E7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96E9]
U+2FAC, ⾬
KANGXI RADICAL RAIN

[U+2FAB]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FAD]
U+2ED7, ⻗
CJK RADICAL RAIN

[U+2ED6]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2ED8]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • In mainland China, Japan, and Korea, the inner dots of the character are written as , which is the historical form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Vietnam, the inner dots of the character are written as and its mirror image .
  • When this character is used as an upper radical component, the form is different depending on the script used.
    • For Ming typeface (明體/明朝体):
      • In mainland China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, the radical component resembles (U+2ED7) with four horizontal lines which is also the historical form used in the Kangxi dictionary.
      • In Taiwan and Hong Kong, the radical component resembles the character itself (with and its mirror image) but the lower right hook of is omitted.
    • For regular script (楷書):
      • In mainland China and Japan, the radical component resembles the character itself (with ) but the lower right hook of is omitted.
      • In Taiwan and Hong Kong, the radical component resembles the character itself (with and its mirror image) but the lower right hook of is omitted.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 173, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中月卜 (MLBY), four-corner 10227, composition (GJK) or 𠕒(HTV))

  1. Kangxi radical #173, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1371, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42210
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1878, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4057, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+96E8

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. ⿻丅⿵冂⿰丶丶
alternative forms
𠕒
𠕘
𠕲

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               

Pictogram (象形) – a cloud with drops of rain falling from it. (Compare Egyptian 𓇲.)

 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k/r/s-wa.

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • hṳ̄ - vernacular;
  • ṳ̀ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • huô - vernacular;
    • ṳ̄ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hō͘/hǒ͘ - vernacular;
    • ú/í - literary.
    Note:
    • hou6 - vernacular;
    • u2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter hjuX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ɢʷ(r)aʔ/
    English rain

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 15952
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷaʔ/
     
    大雨 (dàyǔ, “heavy rain”)

    Definitions edit

    1. rain (Classifier: ; )
    2. (figurative) friend
    3. (figurative) teaching; instruction
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (u)
    • Korean: 우(雨) (u)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    Pronunciation 2 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter hjuH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨoH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦioH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣioH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣioH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯uH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷ(r)aʔ-s/
    English rain (v.t.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 15953
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷas/

    Definitions edit

    1. (literary) to rain
    2. (literary, of rain, snow, tears, etc.) to fall (like rain)
    3. (literary) to moisten

    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    あめ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ame2 → */aməɨ//ame/

    From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *amay.

    Cognate with (ame, unbound apophonic of ama, “sky),[1] as in the location of clouds where water precipitates from.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (あめ) (ame

    1. rain, rainfall
      (ひと)(あめ)ごとに(はる)()hitoame goto ni haru ga kuruspring nears by each rainfall
    2. a rainy weather
      Synonym: 雨天 (uten)
    3. (figurative) something falling like rain
    Usage notes edit
    • In some compounds, when suffixed, ame becomes same. It is unclear if this leading /s/ is indicative of an earlier same, or if this was an epenthesis for euphony to avoid vowel clusters, or for other reasons. This /s/ is also seen in (ao, becoming sao in old compounds) and (ine, becoming shine in old compounds). Given that this /s/ only ever appears interstitially, and given the semantics, this /s/ may be cognate with Korean interfix (-s-) used to mark possession, much like English -s-.
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:雨.

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC hjuX).

    Affix edit

    () (u

    1. rain
    2. (figuratively) something falling like rain
    3. (figuratively) favor, blessing
    Derived terms edit

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC hjuX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅮᆼ〯 (Yale: ngwǔ)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 비〮 (Yale: ) 우〯 (Yale: )

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [u(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bi u))

    1. Hanja form? of (rain). [affix]

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Miyako edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (あみ) (ami

    1. rain

    Northern Amami-Oshima edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (あむぃ) (amï

    1. rain
      今日(きゅう)や、ひかんまら一日中(いちにちじゅう)(あむぃ)模様(もよう)だりょっと。
      Kyuuya, hikanmaraicinicijuuamïmoyoudaryotto.
      It has been raining all day today since this morning.

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *ami.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (あみ) (ami

    1. rain, rainfall

    Compounds edit

    References edit


    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Japonic *amay.

    Cognate with (ame2, sky),[1] as in the location of clouds where water precipitates from.

    Noun edit

    (ame2) (kana あめ)

    1. rain, rainfall

    Usage notes edit

    • In some compounds, when prefixed, ame becomes the bound apophonic ama.
    • In some compounds, when suffixed, ame becomes same.

    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:雨.

    Derived terms edit

    Descendants edit

    • Japanese: (ame)

    References edit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: [1][2]
    : Nôm readings: [1][3][4]

    1. chữ Hán form of (rain).

    References edit

    Yonaguni edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (あみ) (ami

    1. rain

    Yoron edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (あみ) (ami

    1. rain

    Derived terms edit