See also: , , , and
U+60E1, 惡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-60E1

[U+60E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+60E2]
U+F9B9, 惡
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9B9

[U+F9B8]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9BA]

Translingual edit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 61, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一一心 (MMP), four-corner 10331, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: 𛀅

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 391, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10824
  • Dae Jaweon: page 724, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2307, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+60E1

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ): phonetic (OC *qraːɡs) + semantic (heart).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms
 
𱏀 (oh) Hokkien (common)

𢛫
𢝏
𱏀 (oh) Hokkien (common)

𢛫
𢝏

𲂉

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔak (bad); cognate with Tibetan ཨག་པོ (ag po, bad) (Coblin, 1986; Schuessler, 2007). Also related to Thai ยาก (yâak, difficult) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • ok - literary (“hostile; to reprimand”);
  • oh - vernacular (“difficult; slow”).
Note:
  • ag4 - literary;
  • oh4 - vernacular (“difficult”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 惡 (善)
    Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
    /nɤ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
    Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
    Qingdao /və⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
    Xining /nu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ə¹³/
    Lanzhou /ə¹³/
    Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /uo²¹³/
    Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
    /o³¹/
    Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
    Kunming /o³¹/
    Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
    Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /o²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
    Xiangtan /o²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
    Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
    Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
    Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
    /oʔ³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'ak
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    e
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ok3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    è
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁak/
    English bad, ugly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 14220
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːɡ/

    Definitions edit

    1. evil; wicked; foul
        ―  è  ―  malicious
      經常終於犯事 [MSC, trad.]
      经常终于犯事 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā jīngcháng zuò'è, zhè huí zhōngyú fànshì le. [Pinyin]
      He often does bad things and has finally been caught.
      Antonym: (shàn)
    2. fierce; hostile; ferocious
        ―  èzhàn  ―  to fight fiercely
        ―  nèi yǒu è quǎn  ―  there is a fierce dog inside
      心情 [Cantonese, trad.]
      心情 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 sam1 cing4 m4 hou2 zau6 hou2 ok3 gaa3 laa3. [Jyutping]
      When he's upset, he gets really hostile.
    3. (Cantonese, transitive) to be hostile against (someone)
    4. bad; poor
        ―  è  ―  bad habits
        ―  èhuà  ―  to deteriorate
    5. (Cantonese, Min Nan) difficult
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      ni1 daan1 je5 hou2 ok3 gaau2. [Jyutping]
      This is really hard to deal with.
    6. (Quanzhou, Xiamen and Philippines Hokkien) to verbally abuse; to reprimand; to curse; to rebuke
    7. (Taiwanese Hokkien) slow
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Etymology 2 edit

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Exoactive of etymology 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

    Pronunciation edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'uH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuoH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuoH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔoH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔoH/
    Wang
    Li
    /uH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuoH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wu3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔuH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁak-s/
    English hate (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 14219
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːɡs/

    Definitions edit

    1. to hate; to loathe; to dislike
        ―  yàn  ―  to loathe

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Cognate with (OC *qaːn, “where; how”), (OC *qan, “where; how”).

    Pronunciation edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'u
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wu1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 14217
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    Definitions edit

    1. An interrogative pronoun: how
    2. Interjection used to express surprise: oh; ah

    Compounds edit

    See also edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is a variant traditional form of ).

    Etymology 5 edit

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    Probably related to etymologies 1 and 2 (Zhengzhang, 2011b; Xiang, 2019). Alternatively, (MC 'waH, “to soil; to stain”) has been proposed to be the etymon (Cao, 2008).

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (Wu) excrement
    Synonyms edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji edit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings edit

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC 'ak).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅡᆨ〮 (Yale: qák)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 모〯딜 (Yale: mwǒtìl) 악〮 (Yale: ák)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 악할 (akhal ak))

    1. Hanja form? of (evil; wickedness). [noun]
    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC 'uH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᅩᆼ〮 (Yale: qwó)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 아쳐 (Yale: achye) (Yale: wo)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 미워할 (miwohal o))

    1. Hanja form? of (to hate). [affix]
    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Tày edit

    Adjective edit

    (ác)

    1. Nôm form of ác (much, evil).

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: ác,

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.