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U+60E1, 惡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-60E1

[U+60E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+60E2]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 61, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 一一心 (MMP), four-corner 10331, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 391, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10824
  • Dae Jaweon: page 724, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2307, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+60E1

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaːʔ, *qraː
*qraː
*qraː
*qraːʔ, *qraːɡs, *qraːɡ, *qraːɡ
*qraːʔ
*qraːɡs
*qraːɡs
*qraːɡs
*qraːɡs
*qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ
*qaːɡs
*qaːɡ
*qaːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ): phonetic  (OC *qraːɡs) + semantic  (heart).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • ok - literary;
  • oh - vernacular (“difficult; slow”, usually written as ).
Note: oh4 - "difficult".

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 惡 (善)
Mandarin Beijing /ɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /ɤ⁴⁴/
/nɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nɤ⁵³/
Jinan /ŋə²¹³/
Qingdao /və⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋɤ²¹/
Xining /nu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ə¹³/
Lanzhou /ə¹³/
Ürümqi /ŋɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /uo²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋo³¹/
/o³¹/
Guiyang /ŋo²¹/
Kunming /o³¹/
Nanjing /oʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣaʔ²/
Pingyao /ŋʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /oʔ⁵/
Suzhou /oʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔoʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /o²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /ŋo⁵/
Xiang Changsha /o²⁴/
Xiangtan /o²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ok̚¹/
Taoyuan /ok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔk̚³/
Nanning /ɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /ɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ok̚³²/
/oʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔk̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (34)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔak̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/ɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
e
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
è
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔak ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔˁak/
English bad, ugly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 14220
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. evil; wicked; bad; foul; ill
    Antonyms: (shàn)
    /   ―  è  ―  malicious
  2. (Cantonese) fierce; hostile
    心情 [Cantonese, trad.]
    心情 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 sam1 cing4 m4 hou2 zau6 hou2 ok3 gaa3 laa3. [Jyutping]
    When he's upset, he gets really hostile.
  3. (Cantonese, Min Nan) difficult
  4. (Taiwanese Hokkien) slow
Usage notesEdit

is more common for the Hokkien word when pronounced oh.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (34)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɔH/
Li
Rong
/ʔoH/
Wang
Li
/uH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔˁak-s/
English hate (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 14219
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaːɡs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to hate; to loathe; to dislike
    /   ―  yàn  ―  to loathe

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (34)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔo/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɔ/
Li
Rong
/ʔo/
Wang
Li
/u/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 14217
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (literary) An interrogative pronoun: how
  2. (literary) Interjection used to express surprise: oh; ah

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Pronunciation 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant traditional form of .)

JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ak, o) (hangeul , , revised ak, o, McCune–Reischauer ak, o, Yale ak, o)

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CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ác, )

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