English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1 edit

Attested since 1808. In typography, the em is named after the em quadrat (later called em quad), from m quadrat, a metal type used in letterpress typesetting, which is as wide as the point size of the font.

Pronunciation edit

  • enPR: ĕm, IPA(key): /ˈɛm/
  • Audio (US):(file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛm

Noun edit

em (plural ems)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M/m.
    The ems and ens at the beginnings and ends.
    • 2004, Will Rogers, The Stonking Steps, page 170:
      It said, in a whispering, buzzing voice, "Gee-you-ess-ess-ay-dash-em-ee-ar-ar-wye-dash-em-eye-en-gee-oh-dash-pee-eye-pee-dash-pee-ee-ar-ar-wye-dash-pee-eye-en-gee-oh."
  2. (typography) A unit of measurement equal to the height of the type in use.
    Synonyms: quad, em quad, mutton, mut
Derived terms edit
Translations edit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

em

  1. Alternative form of 'em

Etymology 3 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Coined by Christine M. Elverson by removing the "th" from them, perhaps influenced by the pre-existing em/'em, now often perceived as apheretic forms of them (though originally unrelated).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

em (third-person singular, gender-neutral, objective case, reflexive emself, possessive adjective eir, possessive pronoun eirs)

  1. (rare, nonstandard) A gender-neutral third-person singular object pronoun, the objective case of ey or e, equivalent to the singular them and coordinate with him and her.
    • 1986 April 1, Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX: A Gourmet Guide to Typesetting with the AMS-TeX macro package[1], Providence: American Mathematical Society, →ISBN, →LCCN, LCC Z253.4.T47 S673 1986, page 68:
      If the author uses such notation, it should be up to Em to indicate Eir intentions clearly, but there’s no harm checking first.
    • 1997, Steven Shaviro, Doom Patrols : A Theoretical Fiction About Postmodernism, London: Serpent's Tail, →ISBN, →LCCN, page 138:
      I may become quite intimate with someone, spend hours with em every night, and yet not have the slightest idea what eir voice sounds like, or what eir RL body looks, feels, and smells like.
    • 2000, Jane Love, “Ethics, Plugged and Unplugged: The Pegagogy of Disorderly Conduct”, in James A. Inman, Donna N. Sewell, editors, Taking flight with OWLs: Examining Electronic Writing Center Work[2], Taylor & Francis, →ISBN, LCC PE1414.T24 1999, page 193:
      E invites em to consider how ey represent emselves[sic], and in so doing, e focuses eir attention on the ethics that make human relations possible.
    • 2011 March 15, RJ Edwards, “89: New Friend”, in Riot Nrrd[3], retrieved 2012-10-06:
      And ultimately: I think my readers are mature enough that knowing eir assigned gender is not going to give them an “excuse” to misgender em.
    • 2023, Aimee Ogden, “A Half-Remembered World”, The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, vol. 145, no. 1-2, whole no. 768 (July/August 2023), pages 146-202
      “You idiot girl! Are you childsick?” She grabbed Asu’s wrist; Asu made no effort to twist away. “Sand and soil, tell me you’re not pregnant. Is it that—what’s eir name? Aeran? Have you lain with em? Tell me!”
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Compare um.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

em

  1. (Scotland, Ireland) a form of hesitant speech, or an expression of uncertainty; um; umm; erm
    She was abused by, em... David, I think. That was his name, he's a real em... what's the word, narcissist. You should really stay away from him.

Etymology 5 edit

Noun edit

em (plural ems)

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter М / м.

Anagrams edit

Bislama edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈem/
  • Hyphenation: em

Pronoun edit

em

  1. Alternative form of hem (he, she)

See also edit

References edit

  • Terry Crowley (2004) Bislama Reference Grammar, Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi press, →ISBN, page 14

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *(e)me-.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

em (proclitic, contracted m', enclitic me, contracted enclitic 'm)

  1. me (direct or indirect object)

Usage notes edit

  • em is the reinforced (reforçada) form of the pronoun. It is used before verbs beginning with a consonant.
    Em dic…My name is… (literally, “I call myself…”)

Declension edit

Central Franconian edit

Etymology 1 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

em

  1. (most dialects) Reduced form of im (to him).

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

em

  1. (most dialects) Reduced form of däm (to the).
Usage notes edit
  • The normal reduced form is dem (also spelt d'm). The further reduction is used especially after prepositions.

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

em

  1. (most dialects) Contraction of en däm (in the).
Alternative forms edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Old High German umbi

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

em (+ accusative)

  1. (Moselle Franconian) around
Alternative forms edit

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em n (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M/m.

Further reading edit

  • em in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • em in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Daur edit

Etymology edit

Akin to Mongolian эм (em).

Noun edit

em

  1. medicine

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch em.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

èm

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M/m.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

em f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter M.
Usage notes edit
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter M, m have been suggested. The most common is em or a syllabic m, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , əm, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιμμε (imme).
Coordinate terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Fossilised (2nd person singular) imperative of emō.

Interjection edit

em

  1. of wonder or emphasis, there!

References edit

  • "em", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • "em", in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • em in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[4], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to sully one's fair fame: vitae splendori(em) maculas(is) aspergere
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63
  • Hannah Rosén (1999). Latine loqui: trends and directions in the crystallization of classical Latin. München: Fink. p. 47

Latvian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter M/m.

See also edit

Lower Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em m inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter m/M.

See also edit

Luxembourgish edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

em

  1. Reduced form of him

Declension edit

Marshallese edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

em

  1. and

References edit

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old English ēam (maternal uncle), from Proto-West Germanic *auhaim, from Proto-Germanic *awahaimaz.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em (plural emes)

  1. uncle (brother of one's parents)
    Synonym: uncle
  2. (rare) progenitor, forefather
  3. (rare) nephew (son of one's sibling)
Descendants edit
  • English: eam, eme (dialectal)
  • Scots: eme
References edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

em

  1. Alternative form of hem (them)

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

em

  1. Alternative form of am

Northern Kurdish edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

em (oblique me)

  1. we; us (first-person plural personal pronoun)

See also edit

Northern Ohlone edit

Etymology edit

Compare Southern Ohlone men- (your).

Pronoun edit

em

  1. your (second-person, singular, possesive pronoun)

References edit

María de los Angeles Colós, José Guzman, and John Peabody Harrington (1930s) Chochenyo Field Notes (Survey of California and Other Indian Langauges)‎[5], Unpublished

Old Frisian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *auhaim (maternal uncle).

Noun edit

ēm m

  1. an uncle, mother's brother

Inflection edit

Declension of ēm (masculine a-stem)
singular plural
nominative ēm ēmar, ēma
genitive ēmes ēma
dative ēme ēmum, ēmem
accusative ēm ēmar, ēma

Old Norse edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *immi ("am"; a form of the verb *wesaną (to be; dwell)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi (I am, I exist). Cognate with English am, Gothic 𐌹𐌼 (im, am), Latin sum (am), Ancient Greek εἰμί (eimí), Albanian jam (I am), Sanskrit अस्मि (ásmi), Latvian esmu ((I) am), esam (we are).

Verb edit

em

  1. I am, first-person of vera (meaning "to be")

Derived terms edit

Pennsylvania German edit

Etymology edit

Compare German dem.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

em (definite)

  1. dative masculine/neuter singular of der: the

Declension edit

Pennsylvania German definite articles
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative der die es die
Dative dem or em der dem or em de
Accusative der or den die es die

Pronoun edit

em

  1. dative of er: him, to him
  2. dative of es: it, to it

Declension edit

Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese en, from Latin in (in), from Proto-Italic *en, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in). Doublet of in.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Brazil) IPA(key): (careful pronunciation) /ẽj̃/, (natural pronunciation) /ĩ/

Preposition edit

em

  1. in; inside; within (contained by)
    Estou em minha casa.
    I’m in my house.
    Encontraram umas moedas no baú.
    They found some coins inside the chest.
  2. on; on top of (located just above the surface of)
    O livro está na mesa.
    The book is on the table.
    • 2003, J. K. Rowling, Lia Wyler, Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fênix, Rocco, page 417:
      Então o sorriso reapareceu em seu rosto [...]
      Then the smile reappeared on his face [...]
  3. in; at (located in a location)
    Os soldados estão na Crimeia.
    The soldiers are in Crimea.
  4. in (part of; a member of)
    Só três jogadores ainda estão nesta equipa/e.
    Only three players are still in this team.
  5. in; into; inside (towards the inside of)
    A água entrou em várias casas.
    The water got into various houses.
  6. indicates the target of an action
    Quero dar um soco na tua cara.
    I want to punch you in the face.
    Mete um processo neles.
    Shove a lawsuit down their throats.
  7. in (pertaining to the particular thing)
    Ela não passou em inglês.
    She didn’t pass in English.
  8. in (immediately after a period of time)
    Entraremos em contato com você em duas semanas.
    We will get in contact with you in two weeks.
  9. in; during (within a period of time)
    O jornal será publicado no dia cinco.
    The newspaper will be published on the fifth.
  10. at; in (in a state of)
    Estamos em perigo!
    We’re in danger!
  11. in (indicates means, medium, format, genre or instrumentality)
    Fomos pagos em moeda estrangeira.
    We were paid in foreign currency.
  12. in (indicates a language, script, tone etc. of writing, speaking etc.)
    Li um livro em holandês.
    I read a book in Dutch.
  13. in (wearing)
    A moça em preto.
    The lady in black.
  14. (slang) indicates that the object deserves a given punishment
    Cadeia nele!
    He should be in jail!
    (literally, “jail on him!”)

Usage notes edit

When followed by an article, a pronoun, a demonstrative pronoun or adjective, em is combined with the next word to give the following combined forms:

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:em.

Synonyms edit

Salar edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Turkmen, Turkish em, Kyrgyz, Tuvan, Southern Altai эм (em), Kazakh ем (em), etc.

Noun edit

em

  1. medicine
    Antonym: ağu

References edit

  • Tenishev, Edhem (1976) “em”, in Stroj salárskovo jazyká [Grammar of Salar], Moscow, page 324
  • 张, 进锋 (Ayso Cañ Cinfen) (2008) 乌璐别格 (Ulubeğ), 鄭初陽 (Çuyañ Yebey oğlı Ceñ), editors, Salar İbret Sözler 撒拉尔谚语 [Salar Proverbs]‎[6], China Salar Youth League, page 2


Scots edit

Verb edit

em

  1. (Southern Scots) emphatic first-person singular simple present of ti be

See also edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkish هم (hem), from Persian هم (ham).

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

em … em … (Cyrillic spelling ем … ем …)

  1. not only … but also
    Em me bio em još da mu kažem hvala.Not only did he beat me up but he also wanted me to tell him thanks.

Swedish edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

em

  1. pm (indicating hours in the afternoon); abbreviation of eftermiddagen.

Usage notes edit

  • Since the 1960s, Sweden primarily uses the 24 hour clock, making am/pm abbreviations unnecessary and less common

Antonyms edit

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

From English em, the English name of the letter M/m.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em (Baybayin spelling ᜁᜋ᜔)

  1. the name of the Latin-script letter M/m, in the Filipino alphabet
    Synonyms: (in the Abakada alphabet) ma, (in the Abecedario) eme

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • em”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tok Pisin edit

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. This language is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Etymology edit

From English him.

Pronoun edit

em

  1. The third person singular pronoun refers to a person or thing other than the speaker or the person being spoken to. Pronouns in Tok Pisin are not inflected for different cases.
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Port Moresby: Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Jenesis 1:15:
      God i mekim kamap tupela bikpela lait. Bikpela em san bilong givim lait long de, na liklik em mun bilong givim lait long nait. Na God i mekim kamap ol sta tu.
      →New International Version translation

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

Torres Strait Creole edit

Etymology edit

From English him.

Pronoun edit

em

  1. he/she/it (third-person singular pronoun)

Veps edit

Verb edit

em

  1. first-person plural present of ei

Vietnamese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Vietic *ʔɛːm, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *(sʔ)iəm; cognate with Pacoh a-em (younger sibling).

According to Phan Kế Bính's Việt Nam phong tục (1915), apparently the practice of calling each other anh-em for those in relationship originated from the province of Quảng Nam:

1915, Phan Kế Bính, Việt Nam phong tục [Vietnamese customs]:

Vợ chồng con nhà sang trọng, gọi nhau bằng cậu mợ, thầy thông thầy phán thì gọi nhau bằng thầy , nhà thường thì gọi nhau bằng anh chị. Có con rồi thì gọi nhau bằng thầy em đẻ em, nhà thô tục thì gọi nhau là bố cu mẹ đĩ, có người thì gọi bố nó mẹ nó, có người cả hai vợ chồng gọi lẫn nhau là nhà ta. Ở Quảng-Nam thì vợ gọi chồng là anh, chồng gọi vợ là em. Ở Nghệ Tĩnh vợ chồng gọi là gấy nhông.

Spouses from wealthy families tend to call each other cậu and mợ; those employed by the government prefer thầy and ; while in an average household, they call each other anh and chị. Couples with children call each other thầy em [father of the little one] and đẻ em [mother of the little one], while those from low-born families use bố cu and mẹ đĩ; there are also those who say bố nó and mẹ nó and those who both call each other nhà ta. In Quảng Nam, a housewife would call her husband anh and a husband would call his wife em. In Nghệ Tĩnh, "husband and wife" is called gấy nhông.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(classifier đứa, thằng, con) em (, , )

  1. a younger sibling
    thằng em của emmy younger brother
  2. a cousin who is descended from an ancestor who is/was a younger sibling to oneself's or one's spouse's (such as a child of a younger sibling of one of one's parents or a grandchild of a younger sibling of one of one's grandparents)
    Synonym: em họ
    - Sao anh lại gọi chú ấy là thầy ? Chú ấy là em của em. Chú ấy cũng là em của anh.
    - Anh thấy mình nên tôn trọng cái có trước. Thầy ấy là thầy của anh từ trước khi anh lấy em.
    - Why did you call him "teacher"? He's my "younger sibling", meaning he's yours, too.
    - I felt like I should respect what comes first. He was my teacher long before we're married.
  3. a person younger than oneself but of the same generation
  4. (formal) a child or a student
    • 2021, Tâm An, “Cận cảnh các em học sinh tiểu học ăn ngủ, sinh hoạt trong khu cách ly tại trường”, in Tuổi trẻ online[7]:
      Cận cảnh các em học sinh tiểu học ăn ngủ, sinh hoạt trong khu cách ly tại trường
      Close-up of primary students living in school quarantine

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:em.

Derived terms edit

Pronoun edit

em (, , )

  1. pronoun used to refer to any person (oneself, the addressee, or any third person) described by the noun em above
    Synonyms: (second person): thằng em, (third person): em ấy, ẻm
    thằng em của emmy younger brother
    1. (familiar) pronoun used to refer to younger person of the same generation
    2. pronoun used to refer to younger siblings or cousins descended from an ancestor who is/was a younger sibling to one's own or one's spouse's
    3. (formal) pronoun used to refer to a child or a student
      Synonym: con
      Viết một đoạn văn ngắn miêu tả một thứ bố em làm cho em.
      Write a short essay describing something your father made for you.
  2. pronoun used to refer to the girl or woman in a romantic relationship
    Antonyms: anh, tôi
    Anh yêu em. / Em cũng yêu anh.
    I love you. / I love you too.
    • (Can we date this quote?), Alexander Pushkin, translated by Hoàng Thúy Toàn, Tôi yêu em [I Loved You], translation of Я вас любил:
      Tôi yêu em âm thầm, không hi vọng, / Lúc rụt rè, khi hậm hực lòng ghen, / Tôi yêu em, yêu chân thành, đằm thắm, / Cầu em được người tình như tôi đã yêu em.
      I loved you, without words, without hope, / Sometimes I felt shy, sometimes I felt tortured with jealousy, / I loved you, truly and deeply, / I pray you will find someone who loves you as much as I ever did.

Usage notes edit

Textbooks tend to assume grade schoolers and middle schoolers to be young enough to be called em (literally little sibling), but high schoolers to be old enough to be called anh (big brother) and chị (big sister).

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:em.

Adjective edit

em (, , )

  1. small; smaller

See also edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

em f (plural emiau)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter M/m.

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
em unchanged unchanged hem
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also edit

Yola edit

Pronoun edit

em

  1. Alternative form of him
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY:
      Ich knouth em.
      I know him.

References edit

  • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828) William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867, page 51