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GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old High German nāh with preservation of word-final -h as -ch; thus pertaining to modern nah (near) (from Old High German inflected nāh-). Cognate with Dutch na, English nigh.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /naːx/ (generally)
  • IPA(key): /nax/ (as a preposition, unless stressed)
  • (file)

PrepositionEdit

nach (+ dative)

  1. after, past (later in time)
    Viertel nach sechs
    a quarter past six
    nach einer Woche
    after a week
  2. after, behind (in sequence)
    B kommt nach A.
    B comes after A.
  3. to, towards (with geographical names; see usage notes below)
    die Flucht nach Ägypten
    the flight into Egypt
  4. according to; guided by
    • 1918, Elisabeth von Heyking, Die Orgelpfeifen, in: Zwei Erzählungen, Phillipp Reclam jun. Verlag, page 19:
      Die eigenen Zimmer hatten sich die Enkel nach persönlichem Geschmack eingerichtet.
      The grandchildren had furnished their own rooms according to their personal taste.
  5. by the authority of; following
    die Analyse nach Marx
    the analysis following Marx
  6. (with verbs of sensual perception) like (see usage notes below)
    Das riecht nach Knoblauch. – This smells like garlic.
  7. for (indicating desire for an object)
    nach etwas greifen — “to reach for something”
    nach etwas streben - “to strive for/after something”
    nach etwas suchen - “to search for something”

Usage notesEdit

  • (to, towards): The directional preposition nach is now used chiefly with geographical names that do not have an article with them: nach Ägypten, nach Hamburg, etc. Only in elevated, literary style are there remnants of a freer use of nach:
nach dem Irak (“to Iraq”) — for which usually: in den Irak
nach dem Schloss (“to the castle”) — for which usually: zum Schloss.
At times, this use of nach conveys the implication that the destination is not reached. Thus: Er fuhr zum Schloss. – “He travelled to the castle [and arrived there].” But: Er fuhr nach dem Schloss. – “He travelled towards the castle [and may or may not have arrived].”
  • Directional nach with personal names (or names of shops etc.) is found in the regional vernaculars of north-western Germany: nach Peter (“to Peter's house”). This is nonstandard usage.
  • (like): There may be a slight semantic distinction between the use of nach and wie after a verb of sensual perception. The following phrases both translate to English as “This feels like silk”, but compare the different implications: Das fühlt sich nach Seide an. (“This feels like silk, and it probably is.”) Das fühlt sich an wie Seide. (“This feels like silk, although it’s probably something else.”) This distinction is not a strict one, however.

PostpositionEdit

nach (preceded by dative)

  1. according to
    meiner Meinung nachin my opinion

AdverbEdit

nach

  1. (in compound verbs) after, behind, later, next to
    Meine Uhr geht nach.
    My watch is slow.

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (Munster; all senses)

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish nach, from Proto-Celtic *nekʷe, a combination of Proto-Indo-European *ne (negative particle) and *-kʷe (and); compare Latin neque.

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

nach (triggers eclipsis; used with the dependent form of an irregular verb if there is one)

  1. that...not (introduces a negative subordinate clause; the negation of go).
    Dúirt sé nach raibh carr aige.
    He said that he didn’t have a car.

ParticleEdit

nach (triggers eclipsis; used with the dependent form of an irregular verb if there is one)

  1. not (in questions)
    Nach bhfuil ocras ort?
    Are you not hungry?
    Chonaic mé í, nach bhfaca?
    I saw her, didn’t I?

ParticleEdit

nach (copular form)

  1. isn’t...?/whether/if it is... (introduces negative questions, both direct and indirect)
    Nach maith leat bainne?
    Don’t you like milk?
    Níl a fhios agam an miste dó nó nach miste.
    I don’t know if it matters to him or not.
  2. who/which isn’t... (introduces negative relative clauses, both direct and indirect)
    an bhean nach múinteoir íthe woman who isn’t a teacher
    an bhean nach maith léi bainnethe woman who doesn’t like milk

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


LuxembourgishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old High German nāh (compare German nach, noch (still)).

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

nach

  1. still
    Ech léieren nach Lëtzebuergesch.
    I'm still learning Luxembourgish.
  2. yet
  3. just

ConjunctionEdit

nach

  1. nor
    • Luxembourgish translation of Matthew 5:35:
      nach bei der Äerd, well dat ass d'Bänkelche fir seng Féiss, nach bei Jerusalem, well dat ass deem grousse Kinnek seng Stad.
      nor by the earth, because it is the footstool for his feet, nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.

Usage notesEdit

  • Often used with weder (neither).

Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *nekʷos (someone, something); compare nech (someone).

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

nach

  1. some, any
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 23b12
      it essamnu de ar ro·fitetar is ar nach n-indocbáil móir fo·daimim-se inso
      i.e. they are the more fearless, for they know that it is for some great glory that I endure this

InflectionEdit

Case Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative nach nachL naN nacha
Accusative nachN
Genitive nachL, naichL nacha nach nachN
Dative nachL nach
L indicates a form that triggers lenition; N a form that triggers nasalization (eclipsis)
The plural forms shown occur only in negative clauses. In positive clauses, the plural is supplied by alaili, araili.

Derived termsEdit

VerbEdit

nach

  1. Alternative spelling of nách (that (it) is not)

Further readingEdit


Scottish GaelicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish nach, from Proto-Celtic *ne-kʷe, a combination of negative particle *ne and conjunction *kʷe; compare Latin neque.

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

nach

  1. not

Usage notesEdit

  • Used with the dependent form of a verb to produce a negative question.
    Nach eil an t-acras ort?Are you not hungry?
    Chunnaic mi i, nach fhaca?I saw her, didn't I?

ConjunctionEdit

nach

  1. that not

Usage notesEdit

  • Used with the dependent form of a verb to introduce a negative subordinate clause. The negation of gu.
    Bha e ag ràdh nach robh càr aige.He said that he didn't have a car.

ReferencesEdit