Translingual edit

Symbol edit

ab

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Abkhaz.

English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /æb/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æb

Etymology 1 edit

 
Abs

Abbreviation of abdominal muscles.

Noun edit

ab (plural abs)

  1. (informal) abdominal muscle. [Mid 20th century.][1]
    • 2006, H. Peter Steeves, The Things Themselves, page 75:
      The bikinied models in most of the ESPN2 shows have abs. Many of the malnourished bikinied models in the commercials have visible rib cages. How did the two get conflated into a shared vision of beauty?
    • 2010, Bill Geiger, "6-pack Abs in 9 Weeks", Reps! 17:106
      When possible, do your ab workout on a day when you're not training a major muscle group [] .
Usage notes edit

Most often used attributively. Substantive use is more common in the plural form abs.

Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

Abbreviation of abscess.

Noun edit

ab (plural abs)

  1. (slang) An abscess caused by injecting an illegal drug, usually heroin.
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

Abbreviations.

Verb edit

ab (third-person singular simple present abs, present participle abbing, simple past and past participle abbed)

  1. (climbing, informal) To abseil.
    • 1998, Climbing, numbers 178-180, page 22:
      I had a climbing rope in my pack, set up an abseil with it, and abbed down to him.
  2. Abbreviation of abort.

Noun edit

ab

  1. Abbreviation of abortion.

Preposition edit

ab

  1. Abbreviation of about.

Adverb edit

ab

  1. Abbreviation of about.

Etymology 4 edit

From the spelling books and the fact that it was the first of the letter combinations.[2]

Noun edit

ab (plural abs)

  1. (US) The early stages of; the beginning process; the start.

References edit

  1. ^ Lesley Brown, editor-in-chief; William R. Trumble and Angus Stevenson, editors (2002), “ab”, in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 5th edition, Oxford; New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 2.
  2. ^ Mathews, Mitford M, ed. A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles. 1st. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.

Anagrams edit

Aynu edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Persianآب(âb).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab

  1. water

References edit

  • Otto Ladstätter, Andreas Tietze, Die Abdal (Äynu) in Xinjiang (1994)

Azerbaijani edit

Other scripts
Cyrillic аб
Abjad آب

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Classical Persianآب(āb).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab (definite accusative abı, plural ablar)

  1. (Classical Azerbaijani) water
    Synonym: su

Declension edit

    Declension of ab
singular plural
nominative ab
ablar
definite accusative abı
abları
dative aba
ablara
locative abda
ablarda
ablative abdan
ablardan
definite genitive abın
abların
    Possessive forms of ab
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) abım ablarım
sənin (your) abın abların
onun (his/her/its) abı abları
bizim (our) abımız ablarımız
sizin (your) abınız ablarınız
onların (their) abı or abları abları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımı ablarımı
sənin (your) abını ablarını
onun (his/her/its) abını ablarını
bizim (our) abımızı ablarımızı
sizin (your) abınızı ablarınızı
onların (their) abını or ablarını ablarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) abıma ablarıma
sənin (your) abına ablarına
onun (his/her/its) abına ablarına
bizim (our) abımıza ablarımıza
sizin (your) abınıza ablarınıza
onların (their) abına or ablarına ablarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımda ablarımda
sənin (your) abında ablarında
onun (his/her/its) abında ablarında
bizim (our) abımızda ablarımızda
sizin (your) abınızda ablarınızda
onların (their) abında or ablarında ablarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımdan ablarımdan
sənin (your) abından ablarından
onun (his/her/its) abından ablarından
bizim (our) abımızdan ablarımızdan
sizin (your) abınızdan ablarınızdan
onların (their) abından or ablarından ablarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) abımın ablarımın
sənin (your) abının ablarının
onun (his/her/its) abının ablarının
bizim (our) abımızın ablarımızın
sizin (your) abınızın ablarınızın
onların (their) abının or ablarının ablarının

Related terms edit

Blagar edit

Noun edit

ab

  1. fish

References edit

  • A. Schapper (citing Steinhauer), Elevation in the spatial deictic systems of Alor-Pantar languages, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • ASJP, citing L. C. Robinson and G. Holton, Internal classification of the Alor-Pantar language family using computational methods applied to the lexicon (2012)

Catalan edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ap/
  • (Before a voiced consonant or a vowel) IPA(key): /ab/
  • (Before a voiced consonant or a vowel in betacist dialects) IPA(key): /aβ/

Preposition edit

ab

  1. Obsolete form of amb.

Crimean Tatar edit

Etymology edit

Persian [Term?]

Noun edit

ab

  1. water
    Synonyms: suv, su, bum-bum

Declension edit

References edit

Danish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin ab (of, from).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

ab

  1. ex (out of, sold from)
  2. from (with the origin in time)

Etymology 2 edit

See abe (to ape, mimic).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ab

  1. imperative of abe

Further reading edit

East Central German edit

Particle edit

ab

  1. (Strehlen and Schömberg, Silesian) negative particle, do not

East Yugur edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Mongolic *ab-, compare Mongolian авах (avax).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /abqʰə/, [aβqʰə]

Verb edit

ab

  1. to take
    Ci ghudal kelese bu cini arasini xuulj' abqu.
    If you tell a lie I will skin you [take your skin].

German edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (Germany) IPA(key): /ap/, /ɑp/
  • (Switzerland, Austro-Bavarian) IPA(key): /ɑb̥/
  • Rhymes: -ap

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German abe, ab, from Old High German ab, from Proto-West Germanic *ab, from Proto-Germanic *ab.

Preposition edit

ab (+ dative)

  1. beginning at that time or location; from
    Ab heute verfügbar.
    Available from today.
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Norwegian Bokmål: ab

Etymology 2 edit

From adverbial use of the preposition in verbs such as abschlagen, abgehen etc.

Adjective edit

ab (strong nominative masculine singular (nonstandard) abber, not comparable)

  1. (colloquial, predicative) off; not attached to anything anymore
    Der Arm ist ab.
    The arm is (hewn) off.
  2. (nonstandard, attributive) off; not attached to anything anymore
    Der abbe Arm ist verschwunden.
    The (hewn) off arm has disappeared.
Usage notes edit
  • The predicative use is common in colloquial German throughout the country.
  • The attributive forms are mostly used in Western and Northern Germany and are considerably less common than the predicative use. They used to be used mostly jocularly, but become gradually more frequent since they are much shorter than the appropriate full verb forms such as abgetrennt (disconnected, severed).
  • The inflected attributive forms retain the devoiced consonant. Hence, sometimes they are spelled with p, rather than b: appes Bein.
Declension edit

Related terms edit

Indonesian edit

Noun edit

ab (first-person possessive abku, second-person possessive abmu, third-person possessive abnya)

  1. small pot
  2. (dated) father (aba)

Interlingua edit

Preposition edit

ab

  1. from

Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin abbas (father), from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbâs), from Aramaicאַבָּא(’abbā, father).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab m (genitive singular aba, nominative plural abaí)

  1. (Christianity) abbot
    Coordinate terms: ban-ab, máthairab
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Contraction of the relative particle a and the prevocalic variant of the past/conditional copula particle b’.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

ab

  1. Alternative form of ba (used in relative clauses before a vowel sound).
    Fear maith ab ea é.
    He was a good man.
    buachaill ab áirde ná mo dheartháira boy (who was) taller than my brother
Related terms edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
ab n-ab hab t-ab
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977), “ab”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Entries containing “ab” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “ab” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

K'iche' edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab

  1. hammock
  2. steam
  3. mist

References edit

Kein edit

Noun edit

ab

  1. fire

Further reading edit

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ā (not used before a vowel or h)
  • abs (archaic, exclusively used before the pronoun te)
  • af (archaic)

Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *ap, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away) (whence English off, of and after). See also po-. Cognate with ᾰ̓πό (apó).

The ablative is actually from the PIE ablative.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

ab (+ ablative)

  1. (indicating ablation): from, away from, out of
  2. (indicating ablation): down from
  3. (indicating agency): (source of action or event) by, by means of
  4. (indicating instrumentality): (source of action or event) by, by means of, with
    • 106 BCE – 43 BCE, Cicero, Oration in favor of P. Sestius Pro P. Sestio Oratio.Ch. 42, sect. 92:
      Horum utro uti nolumus, altero est utendum. vim volumus exstingui, ius valeat necesse est, id est iudicia, quibus omne ius continetur; iudicia displicent aut nulla sunt, vis dominetur necesse est. hoc vident omnes: Milo et vidit et fecit, ut ius experiretur, vim depelleret. altero uti voluit, ut virtus audaciam vinceret; altero usus necessario est, ne virtus ab audacia vinceretur.
      ...so that virtue might not be overwhelmed by insolence.
  5. (indicating association): to, with
  6. (indicating location): at, on, in
  7. (time) after, since

Usage notes edit

Used in conjunction with passive verbs to mark the agent.

  • Liber ā discipulō aperītur.
    The book is opened by the student.

Descendants edit

  • French: à
  • Italian: a
  • Spanish: a
  • Portuguese: a
  • Norwegian Bokmål: a, ab (learned)

References edit

  • ab”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ab in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • the east winds are blowing: venti ab ortu solis flant
    • the Rhone[TR2] is the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani: Rhodanus Sequanos ab Helvetiis dividit
    • to be far from town: longe, procul abesse ab urbe
    • to devote every spare moment to...; to work without intermission at a thing: nullum tempus intermittere, quin (also ab opere, or ad opus)
    • in the fifth year from the founding of the city: anno ab urbe condita quinto
    • to be always at a person's side: ab alicuius latere non discedere
    • to turn one's gaze away from an object: oculos deicere, removere ab aliqua re
    • to trace one's descent from some one: originem ab aliquo trahere, ducere
    • a native of England: ortus ab Anglis or oriundus ex Anglis
    • from one's entry into civil life: ab ineunte (prima) aetate (De Or. 1. 21. 97)
    • to begin with a thing: initium capere; incipere ab aliqua re
    • to start from small beginnings: ab exiguis initiis proficisci
    • the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa repetenda est ab aliqua re (not quaerenda)
    • to originate in, arise from: ab aliqua re proficisci
    • to rescue from destruction: ab exitio, ab interitu aliquem vindicare
    • to gain a person's esteem, friendship: gratiam inire ab aliquoor apud aliquem
    • to look favourably upon; to support: propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)
    • to gain one's point with any one: aliquid ab aliquo impetrare
    • to win golden opinions from every one: maximam ab omnibus laudem adipisci
    • to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bene, male audire (ab aliquo)
    • to use up, make full use of one's spare time: otio abūti or otium ad suum usum transferre
    • to draw away some one's attention from a thing: alicuius animum ab aliqua re abducere
    • to hold the same views: idem sentire (opp. dissentire ab aliquo)
    • to apply to a person for advice: consilium petere ab aliquo
    • to rescue from oblivion: aliquid ab oblivione vindicare
    • to be quite uncivilised: ab omni cultu et humanitate longe abesse (B. G. 1. 1. 3)
    • to be educated by some one: litteras discere ab aliquo
    • to receive instruction from some one: institui or erudiri ab aliquo
    • to derive an argument from a thing: argumentum ducere, sumere ex aliqua re or petere ab aliqua re
    • to disagree with a person: dissentire, dissidere ab or cum aliquo
    • to go back to the remote ages: repetere ab ultima (extrema, prisca) antiquitate (vetustate), ab heroicis temporibus
    • to have no taste for the fine arts: abhorrere ab artibus (opp. delectari artibus)
    • to go a long way back (in narrative): longe, alte (longius, altius) repetere (either absolute or ab aliqua re)
    • no sound passed his lips: nulla vox est ab eo audita
    • to extract an answer from some one: responsum ab aliquo ferre, auferre
    • to translate from Plato: ab or de (not ex) Platone vertere, convertere, transferre
    • to form, derive a word from... (used of the man who first creates the word): vocabulum, verbum, nomen ducere ab, ex...
    • the word amicitia comes from amare: nomen amicitiae (or simply amicitia) dicitur ab amando
    • to be separated by a deadly hatred: capitali odio dissidere ab aliquo (De Am. 1. 2)
    • to prevent some one from growing angry, appease his anger: animum alicuius ab iracundia revocare
    • to revenge oneself on some one: ulcisci aliquem, poenas expetere ab aliquo
    • to revenge oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf: poenas alicuius or alicuius rei repetere ab aliquo
    • to protect any one from wrong: ab iniuria aliquem defendere
    • to neglect one's duty: ab officio discedere
    • to neglect one's duty: de, ab officio decedere
    • to let oneself be perverted from one's duty: ab officio abduci, avocari
    • to have an inclination for a thing: propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid (opp. alienum, aversum esse, abhorrere ab aliqua re)
    • the principles which I have followed since I came to man's estate: meae vitae rationes ab ineunte aetate susceptae (Imp. Pomp. 1. 1.)
    • to summon some one from the dead: aliquem ab inferis or a mortuis evocare, excitare (passive ab inferis exsistere)
    • to ask for an oracular response: oraculum petere (ab aliquo)
    • from beginning to end: ab ovo usque ad mala (proverb.)
    • the conversation began with..: sermo ortus est ab aliqua re
    • something has been left as a legacy by some one: hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquo
    • I have received a legacy from a person: hereditas ad me or mihi venit ab aliquo (Verr. 2. 1. 10)
    • to lend, borrow money at interest: pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo
    • to borrow money from some one: pecuniam mutuari or sumere mutuam ab aliquo
    • to demand an account, an audit of a matter: rationem alicuius rei reposcere aliquem or ab aliquo
    • to demand an account, an audit of a matter: rationem ab aliquo reptere de aliqua re (Cluent. 37. 104)
    • to gain some one's favour: gratiam inire apud aliquem, ab aliquo (cf. sect. V. 12)
    • to be on a person's side (not ab alicuius partibus): ab (cum) aliquo stare (Brut. 79. 273)
    • to hold different views in politics: ab aliquo in re publica dissentire
    • to deliver some one from slavery: ab aliquo servitutem or servitutis iugum depellere
    • to exact a penalty from some one: poenam petere, repetere ab aliquo
    • to exact a penalty from some one: poenas expetere ab aliquo
    • to lay down arms: ab armis discedere (Phil. 11. 33)
    • to demand satisfaction, restitution: res repetere (ab aliquo) (Off. 1. 11. 36)
    • to gain a victory over the enemy: victoriam reportare ab hoste
    • putting aside, except: cum discessi, -eris, -eritis ab
  • Latin Dictionary, Lewis and Short, 1879.
  • Lingua Latina, Hans H. Ørberg, 2005.

Latvian edit

Conjunction edit

ab

  1. (archaic) or

Synonyms edit

Preposition edit

ab

  1. (archaic) around

Synonyms edit

Livonian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

a'b

  1. (anatomy) shoulder
  2. help

Usage notes edit

LĒL also features a partitive plural form with -īdi as in the example abīdi nustõ "to shrug."

Declension edit

Middle Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish aub, from Proto-Celtic *abū.

Noun edit

ab f (genitive aba)

  1. river

Descendants edit

Mutation edit

Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ab unchanged n-ab
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Norwegian Bokmål edit

 
Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From German ab (from), from Middle High German ab, from Old High German ab (of), from Proto-Germanic *ab (away, away from), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

Preposition edit

ab

  1. (economics) from; (i.e. delivered) for the seller's expense at a location and forwarded for the buyer's expense
    ab Frankfurtfrom Frankfurt
    ab varelagerfrom inventory
    ab fabrikkfrom factory
  2. (economics, obsolete) as of
    ab mai
    as of May
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ab (from, away from, on, in), from Proto-Italic *ab, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

ab

  1. Only used in ab ovo (ab ovo)

Etymology 3 edit

Abbreviation of avbetaling (installment), verbal noun form of avbetale (to pay off), a compound of av +‎ betale, first part av (of, from, by, off), from Old Norse af (of, from, off, by), from Proto-Germanic *ab (away from), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away) + second part betale (pay, purchase), from Middle Low German betalen (of, from, off, by), last part is the suffix -ing (-ing), from Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Noun edit

ab

  1. (colloquial) Abbreviation of avbetaling (installment).
    • 1974, Kari Bakke, Gråspurven, page 22:
      møbler og vaskemaskin på AB
      furniture and washing machine on installments
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

References edit

  • “ab_1” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • “ab_2” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • “ab_3” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • ab” in Store norske leksikon

Occitan edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ab.

Preposition edit

ab

  1. (Guardiol) with

References edit

  • Pei, Mario A. 1948. Ab and the survival of the Latin genitive in Old Italian. Italica 25. 104–106.

Old French edit

Etymology edit

Reduced form of Latin apud.

Preposition edit

ab

  1. (10th century) with

Synonyms edit

  • avoec (used throughout Old French into the Middle and modern French periods)

Old High German edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *ab.

Preposition edit

ab

  1. of

Descendants edit

  • German: ab
    • Norwegian Bokmål: ab

Old Occitan edit

Etymology edit

Reduced form of Latin apud

Preposition edit

ab

  1. with
    • c. 1000, unknown, Lo Poèma de Boecis:
      Non comprarias ab mil liuras d’argent.
      [That] you couldn't buy with a thousand pounds of silver.

Descendants edit

Parauk edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ab

  1. to give, hand over.

Pennsylvania German edit

Etymology edit

Compare German ab, Dutch af, English off.

Preposition edit

ab

  1. off
  2. from
  3. away

Pumpokol edit

Noun edit

ab

  1. father

Scots edit

Etymology edit

Uncertain. Compare English hobble, Dutch hobbelen (to lurch), Danish happe (to stutter), Norwegian jabba (to stammer) and colloquial Swedish happla (to stutter).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab (plural abs)

  1. (Orkney) impediment, hindrance, objection.

Verb edit

ab (simple past abed)

  1. (Orkney) to hinder

References edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Noun edit

ab m (genitive singular aba, plural abachan)

  1. Alternative form of aba

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

ab

  1. Romanization of 𒀊 (ab)
  2. Romanization of 𒀖 (ab)

Turkish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Ottoman Turkishآب(āb, water), from Persianآب(âb).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ab (definite accusative abı, plural ablar)

  1. (obsolete, poetic) water

References edit

Volapük edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from German aber (but).

Conjunction edit

ab

  1. but

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

From fab, soft mutation of mab (son).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

ab

  1. A patronymic indicator; son of.

Usage notes edit

This form is found before vowels. Before a consonant, the form ap is used.

Antonyms edit

References edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ab”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Wolof edit

Article edit

ab

  1. a/an (singular indefinite article)

Usage notes edit

Precedes the noun.