Ä U+00C4, Ä
LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
Composition:A [U+0041] + ◌̈ [U+0308]
Ã
[U+00C3]
Latin-1 Supplement Å
[U+00C5]

Central Franconian edit

Etymology edit

  • For the origin of /ɛ/, see E.
  • /ɛː/ is from e before certain consonants; from analogical umlaut of /aː/; from Middle High German æ in some dialects; in Moselle Franconian from all cases where Ripuarian has /œː/ (see Ö); in eastern Moselle Franconian from Middle High German ei, öu.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (short) /ɛ/, (long) /ɛː/

Letter edit

Ä

  1. A letter in the German-based alphabet of Central Franconian.

Usage notes edit

  • In the Dutch-based spelling, short /ɛ/ is always represented by E (see there). Long /ɛː/ is represented by ae or è(è).

Elfdalian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (Dalecarlian runes)

Letter edit

Ä (upper case Ä, lower case ä)

  1. The thirty-first letter of the Elfdalian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Estonian edit

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The twenty-eighth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called ää and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Swedish Ä and/or its origin, German Ä, in which the umlaut (two dots) were originally a lowercase e, first placed to the side and later on top of a/A to signify fronting of the vowel via Germanic umlaut. This letter was already used in the earliest known Finnish writings in the 16th century, where it in fraktur (blackletter) still clearly displayed the lowercase e (). Over time, its usage became more regular as the Finnish spelling did, and the e simplified into two vertical lines and then two dots, as in the other regions where the letter is used.

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Finnish alphabet, called ää and written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

Should not be replaced by ae in case of technical restrictions (like in e.g. German), as that may change the meaning.

See also edit

German edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ä (lowercase)

Etymology edit

  • (letter) From Alemannic Middle High German , a representation of secondary umlaut [æ]. In Early Modern German, the letter spread to Central German, which did not have a special phoneme for secondary umlaut. Therefore, ä was seen there as a marker of umlaut as such, and was used analogously.
  • (sound) Middle High German distinguished up to five stressed e-vowels: [æ], [ɛ], [ɛː], [e], [eː]. Through open-syllable lengthening, mergers, and analogy, this system was not just reduced but entirely altered. 19th-century Standard German generally retained only one short vowel, but distinguished [ɛː] from [eː]. All long ‹ä› were by then usually pronounced [ɛː], while ‹e› was [ɛː] in some words, [eː] in others. The choice between these, however, varied greatly from region to region, and was entirely absent in many Low German areas. Theodor Siebs therefore (consistently but rather arbitrarily) restricted [ɛː] to the spelling ‹ä› in his codification of stage and broadcasting German.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɛː/, /ˌaː ˈʊmlaʊ̯t/ (letter name)
    • (file)
  • IPA(key): /ɛ/ (short phoneme)
  • IPA(key): /ɛː/, [ɛː], [eː] (long phoneme)
    • The distinction between long /ɛː/ and /eː/ is maintained in some regions, including Switzerland and most of western Germany. In many other regions the two are merged in normal speech, though speakers may nevertheless distinguish them in individual words and in enunciation.
  • Rhymes: -eː (one pronunciation)
  • Homophones: E, eh (one pronunciation)

Letter edit

Ä n (strong, genitive Ä or Äs, plural Ä or Äs)

  1. a letter used in German spelling: most often an umlauted version of A

Declension edit

Further reading edit

  • Ä” in Duden online
  • Ä” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Kalo Finnish Romani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The thirtieth letter of the Kalo Finnish Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.[1]

See also edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kimmo Granqvist (2011) “Aakkoset [Alphabet]”, in Lyhyt Suomen romanikielen kielioppi [Consice grammar of Finnish Romani]‎[1] (in Finnish), Helsinki: Kotimaisten kielten keskus, →ISBN, →ISSN, retrieved February 6, 2022, pages 1-2

Luxembourgish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ä (lowercase)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [æ] (short phoneme)
  • IPA(key): [ɛː] (long phoneme before /r/, phonemically /eː/)
  • IPA(key): [ɛː] (long phoneme elsewhere, phonemically /ɛː/)

Letter edit

Ä

  1. A letter used in Luxembourgish spelling: an umlauted version of A.

Usage notes edit

  • The short vowel [æ] is spelt ä (rather than e) when it occurs as an umlaut in inflections. Otherwise its use is chiefly dependent on the spelling of the German cognate. Ä is used when the German word has one of a, ä, o, ö, thus e.g. Fläsch and Fräsch (German Flasche, Frosch). If no German cognate exists, ä is used when there is a closely related Luxembourgish word with a.
  • The long vowel [ɛː] is always spelt ä. In native Luxembourgish words this sound occurs only before r as an allophone of /eː/. Elsewhere it must be interpreted as a distinct phoneme /ɛː/, which is restricted to borrowings.

Romani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

Ä (lower case, upper case Ä)

  1. (International Standard) Used to represent a dialectal centralized vowel.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Marcel Courthiade (2009) “DECISION : "THE ROMANI ALPHABET"”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian and English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 499
  2. ^ Yūsuke Sumi (2018) “ä”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 16

Skolt Sami edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

Ä (lower case ä)

  1. The thirty-sixth letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Slovene edit

Etymology 1 edit

From German Ä, with its corresponding pronunciation, which is still used by some speakers, however, the majority of speakers have vernacularized the pronunciation to a long close-mid vowel regardless of the initial pronunciation.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. Additional letter in Slovene common mostly in loanwords from German.

Noun edit

Ä m inan

  1. (educated) The name of the Latin script letter Ä / ä.

Usage notes edit

It is more common to use the name preglašeni a than to use this name.

Inflection edit

  • Overall more common
 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., soft o-stem
nom. sing. Ä
gen. sing. Ä-ja
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
Ä Ä-ja Ä-ji
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
Ä-ja Ä-jev Ä-jev
dative
(dajȃlnik)
Ä-ju Ä-jema Ä-jem
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
Ä Ä-ja Ä-je
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
Ä-ju Ä-jih Ä-jih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
Ä-jem Ä-jema Ä-ji
  • More common when with a definite adjective
Masculine inan., no endings
nom. sing. Ä
gen. sing. Ä
singular dual plural
nominative Ä Ä Ä
accusative Ä Ä Ä
genitive Ä Ä Ä
dative Ä Ä Ä
locative Ä Ä Ä
instrumental Ä Ä Ä

Etymology 2 edit

Letter A with diaeresis (¨) to signify centralization.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The second letter of the Resian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

References edit

  • Steenwijk, Han (1994) Ortografia resiana = Tö jošt rozajanskë pïsanjë (in Italian and Slovene), Padua: CLEUP

Swedish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

 
The word haͤnnes (hers) from year 1786, where the now obsolete variation is still used.

First attested in 1495.[1] Originally a ligature of A and E. During the 16th century, the letter began to be written as an A with a lower case e ontop ( respectively ). During the first decades of the 18th century, the use of umlaut (Ää) emerged.

Pronunciation edit

Letter name
Phoneme

Letter edit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The second last letter of the Swedish alphabet, pronounced /ɛː/ when long, /ɛ/ when short, /æː/ when long and before r, and /æ/ when short and before r.

Declension edit

Declension of Ä 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative Ä äet än äna
Genitive Äs äets äns änas

References edit

Turkmen edit

Letter edit

Ä (lower case ä)

  1. The sixth letter of the Turkmen alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ˈaː/, /ˌa/

Letter edit

Ä (lower case ä)

  1. The letter A, marked for its syllabic pronunciation distinct from adjacent vowels.