Ä U+00C4, Ä
LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
Composition:A [U+0041] + ◌̈ [U+0308]
Ã
[U+00C3]
Latin-1 Supplement Å
[U+00C5]

TranslingualEdit

 
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LetterEdit

Ä (lower case ä), composition ⿱¨A

  1. The letter A with a diaeresis.
  2. The letter A with an umlaut.

See alsoEdit

Central FranconianEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • For the origin of /ɛ/, see E.
  • /ɛː/ is from e before certain consonants; from analogical umlaut of /aː/; from Middle High German æ in some dialects; in Moselle Franconian from all cases where Ripuarian has /œː/ (see Ö); in eastern Moselle Franconian from Middle High German ei, öu.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (short) /ɛ/, (long) /ɛː/

LetterEdit

Ä

  1. A letter in the German-based alphabet of Central Franconian.

Usage notesEdit

  • In the Dutch-based spelling, short /ɛ/ is always represented by E (see there). Long /ɛː/ is represented by ae or è(è).

EstonianEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The twenty-eighth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called ää and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Swedish Ä and/or its origin, German Ä, in which the umlaut (two dots) were originally a lowercase e, first placed to the side and later on top of a/A to signify fronting of the vowel via Germanic umlaut.

LetterEdit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Finnish alphabet, called ää and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • ä (lowercase)

EtymologyEdit

  • (letter) From Alemannic Middle High German , a representation of secondary umlaut [æ]. In Early Modern German, the letter spread to Central German, which did not have a special phoneme for secondary umlaut. Therefore, ä was seen there as a marker of umlaut as such, and was used analogously.
  • (sound) Middle High German distinguished up to five stressed e-vowels: [æ], [ɛ], [ɛː], [e], [eː]. Through open-syllable lengthening, mergers, and analogy, this system was not just reduced but entirely altered. 19th-century Standard German generally retained only one short vowel, but distinguished [ɛː] from [eː]. All long ‹ä› were by then usually pronounced [ɛː], while ‹e› was [ɛː] in some words, [eː] in others. The choice between these, however, varied greatly from region to region, and was entirely absent in many Low German areas. Theodor Siebs therefore (consistently but rather arbitrarily) restricted [ɛː] to the spelling ‹ä› in his codification of stage and broadcasting German.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ɛː/, /ˌaː ˈʊmlaʊ̯t/ (letter name)
    • (file)
  • IPA(key): /ɛ/ (short phoneme)
  • IPA(key): /ɛː/, [ɛː], [eː] (long phoneme)
    • The distinction between long /ɛː/ and /eː/ is maintained in some regions, including Switzerland and most of western Germany. In many other regions the two are merged in normal speech, though speakers may nevertheless distinguish them in individual words and in enunciation.
  • Rhymes: -eː (one pronunciation)
  • Homophones: E, eh (one pronunciation)

LetterEdit

Ä n (strong, genitive Ä or Äs, plural Ä or Äs)

  1. a letter used in German spelling: most often an umlauted version of A

DeclensionEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Ä” in Duden online
  • Ä” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Kalo Finnish RomaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The thirtieth letter of the Kalo Finnish Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kimmo Granqvist (2011), “Aakkoset [Alphabet]”, in Lyhyt Suomen romanikielen kielioppi [Consice grammar of Finnish Romani]‎[1] (in Finnish), Kotimaisten kielten keskus, →ISBN, →ISSN, retrieved February 6, 2022, pages 1-2

LuxembourgishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • ä (lowercase)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [æ] (short phoneme)
  • IPA(key): [ɛː] (long phoneme before /r/, phonemically /eː/)
  • IPA(key): [ɛː] (long phoneme elsewhere, phonemically /ɛː/)

LetterEdit

Ä

  1. A letter used in Luxembourgish spelling: an umlauted version of A.

Usage notesEdit

  • The short vowel [æ] is spelt ä (rather than e) when it occurs as an umlaut in inflections. Otherwise its use is chiefly dependent on the spelling of the German cognate. Ä is used when the German word has one of a, ä, o, ö, thus e.g. Fläsch and Fräsch (German Flasche, Frosch). If no German cognate exists, ä is used when there is a closely related Luxembourgish word with a.
  • The long vowel [ɛː] is always spelt ä. In native Luxembourgish words this sound occurs only before r as an allophone of /eː/. Elsewhere it must be interpreted as a distinct phoneme /ɛː/, which is restricted to borrowings.

RomaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (lower case, upper case Ä)

  1. (International Standard) Used to represent a dialectal centralized vowel.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Marcel Courthiade (2009), “DECISION : "THE ROMANI ALPHABET"”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian; English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 499
  2. ^ Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “ä”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 16

Skolt SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (lower case ä)

  1. The thirty-sixth letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

SloveneEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From German Ä, with its corresponding pronunciation, which is still used by some speakers, however, the majority of speakers have vernacularized the pronunciation to a long close-mid vowel regardless of the initial pronunciation.

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. Additional letter in Slovene common mostly in loanwords from German.

NounEdit

Ä m inan

  1. (educated) The name of the Latin script letter Ä / ä.

Usage notesEdit

It is more common to use the name preglašeni a than to use this name.

InflectionEdit

  • Overall more common
Masculine inan., soft o-stem
nom. sing. Ä
gen. sing. Ä-ja
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
Ä Ä-ja Ä-ji
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
Ä-ja Ä-jev Ä-jev
dative
(dajȃlnik)
Ä-ju Ä-jema Ä-jem
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
Ä Ä-ja Ä-je
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
Ä-ju Ä-jih Ä-jih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
Ä-jem Ä-jema Ä-ji
  • More common when with a definite adjective
Masculine inan., no endings
nom. sing. Ä
gen. sing. Ä
singular dual plural
nominative Ä Ä Ä
accusative Ä Ä Ä
genitive Ä Ä Ä
dative Ä Ä Ä
locative Ä Ä Ä
instrumental Ä Ä Ä

Etymology 2Edit

Letter A with diaeresis (¨) to signify centralization.

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (upper case, lower case ä)

  1. The second letter of the Resian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

ReferencesEdit

  • Steenwijk, Han (1994) Ortografia resiana = Tö jošt rozajanskë pïsanjë (in it, sl-rozaj), Padua: CLEUP

TurkmenEdit

LetterEdit

Ä (lower case ä)

  1. The sixth letter of the Turkmen alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit