ë U+00EB, ë
LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
Composition:e [U+0065] + ◌̈ [U+0308]
ê
[U+00EA]
Latin-1 Supplement ì
[U+00EC]

TranslingualEdit

LetterEdit

ë (upper case Ë)

  1. The letter e with a diaresis.

See alsoEdit


AlbanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ë (lower case Ë)

  1. The eighth letter of the Albanian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


FrenchEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ë (lower case Ë)

  1. The letter “e” in words when it must be pronounced separately and not associated with preceding letter. E.g. “-gue” is normally pronounced /ɡ/ but “-guë” is pronounce /ɡy/ (like in aiguë, ciguë); “œ” is normally pronounced /e/ or /ɛ/ but “oë” is pronounced /o.ɛ/ (like in troëne, Noël).

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. The close-mid front unrounded vowel as used in several Hungarian dialects;[1] more closed than the sound of e and shorter than that of é; used instead of e in certain, lexically determined places.
    Synonym: (literally: “closed e”) zárt e
  2. The symbol to indicate this sound.

Usage notesEdit

It can distinguish certain words that are otherwise homophones in the current standard (so it can act like a phoneme), e.g. nem: nem (gender, genus) and nëm (not);[2] mentek: mentëk (I save), mentek (exempt [plural]), mëntëk (you go [plural]), and mëntek (they went).[3]

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative ë ë-k
accusative ë-t ë-ket
dative ë-nek ë-knek
instrumental ë-vel ë-kkel
causal-final ë-ért ë-kért
translative ë-vé ë-kké
terminative ë-ig ë-kig
essive-formal ë-ként ë-kként
essive-modal
inessive ë-ben ë-kben
superessive ë-n ë-ken
adessive ë-nél ë-knél
illative ë-be ë-kbe
sublative ë-re ë-kre
allative ë-hez ë-khez
elative ë-ből ë-kből
delative ë-ről ë-kről
ablative ë-től ë-ktől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
ë-é ë-ké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
ë-éi ë-kéi
Possessive forms of ë
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. ë-m ë-im
2nd person sing. ë-d ë-id
3rd person sing. ë-je ë-i
1st person plural ë-nk ë-ink
2nd person plural ë-tek ë-itek
3rd person plural ë-jük ë-ik

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ …a zárt ë-t azonban lakosságunknak körülbelül 60%-a megkülönbözteti a nyílt e-től, tehát sokak számára természetes. Nem csupán nyelvjárási jelenség tehát, bár a nagyvárosi beszédből valóban hiányzik. (“…however, closed ë is distinguished from open e by approximately 60% of our population, so it is natural for many. Therefore, it is not only a dialectal phenomenon, although it is indeed missing from urban speech.”) In: Zimányi, Árpád. Nyelvhelyesség (’Standard Usage’). Eger: EKF Líceum Kiadó, 2005. A hatodik kiadás digitális változata (’Digital version of the sixth edition’), page 18.
  2. ^ Ëe-ző szótár. Alapszókincs (Kiejtes.hu)
  3. ^ Buvári Márta: Az „ë-zés” köznyelvisége (Kiejtes.hu)

Further readingEdit


KashubianEdit

LetterEdit

ë (upper case Ë)

  1. The ninth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, called szwa and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

ConjunctionEdit

ë

  1. and

Middle High GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

In words spelled with this letter, the ë comes from Proto-Germanic *e (as in ëȥzen) or *i (as in lëben)

LetterEdit

ë

  1. a letter of the normalised Middle High German spelling

RomaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. (International Standard) The letter e with the umlaut.

Usage notesEdit

Although it is pronounced the same as ä, it indicates a dialectal pronunciation of e[1].

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “ë”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 16

Further readingEdit

  • Marcel Courthiade (2009), “DECISION : "THE ROMANI ALPHABET"”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian; English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 499
  • Introduction 3. How to read Rromani”, in R.E.D-RROM[1], accessed October 2, 2021