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ChineseEdit

 
up; on; on top; upon; first; previous or last; upper; higher; above; previous; to climb; to go into; to go up
 
under; next; lower; below; underneath; down(wards); to go down; latter
simp. and trad.
(上下)

PronunciationEdit


NounEdit

上下

  1. high and low
  2. from top to bottom
  3. up and down
  4. old and young
  5. relative superiority or inferiority

SynonymsEdit

PostpositionEdit

上下

  1. (after round numbers) about; or so; thereabouts

VerbEdit

上下

  1. to go up and down

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(がり)
Grade: 1
お(り)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of  ()がり (agari, rising, going up, the  (れん) (よう) (けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb  ()がる (agaru, to rise, to go up)) +  () (ori, descending, going down, the  (れん) (よう) (けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb  ()りる (oriru, to descend, to go down)).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana あがりおり, rōmaji agariori)

  1. ascending and descending, ascent and descent

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana あがりさがりする, rōmaji agarisagari suru)

  1. to ascend and descend, to go up and go down

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(がり)
Grade: 1
さ(がり)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of  ()がり (agari, rising, going up, the  (れん) (よう) (けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb  ()がる (agaru, to rise, to go up)) +  ()がり (sagari, coming down, hanging down, the  (れん) (よう) (けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb  ()がる (sagaru, to come down, to hang down)).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana あがりさがり, rōmaji agarisagari)

  1. rise and fall, fluctuation (as a level of something, such as a price)

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana あがりさがりする, rōmaji agarisagari suru)

  1. to rise and fall, to fluctuate (as a level of something, such as a price)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
お(ろし)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上げ (age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下ろし (oroshi, lowering, bringing down, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下ろす orosu, “to lower something, to bring something down”).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana あげおろし, rōmaji ageoroshi)

  1. raising and lowering of something
  2. loading and unloading (as of the cargo in a ship)
  3. weaving on a loom (from the way the warp is raised and lowered)
IdiomsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
くだ(し)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上げ (age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下だし (kudashi, putting something down; passing something through one's gut, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下す kudasu, “to put something down; to pass something through one's gut”).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana あげくだし, rōmaji agekudashi)

  1. bringing something back up and passing something → vomiting and having diarrhea

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
さ(げ)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上げ (age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下げ (sage, lowering something, hanging something down, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下げる sageru, “to lower something, to hang something down”).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana あげさげ, rōmaji agesage)

  1. raising and lowering of something
  2. (more specifically) the raising and lowering of prices
  3. praising and berating someone
  4. good times and bad times]], thick and thin
  5. the start and finish of something (such as the process of setting a table for a meal, and then clearing up afterwards)
  6. the ebb and flow of the tides
IdiomsEdit

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana あげさげする, rōmaji agesage suru)

  1. to raise and lower something
  2. (more specifically) to raise and lower prices
  3. to praise and berate someone
  4. to start and finish something (such as the process of setting a table for a meal, and then clearing up afterwards)
  5. to ebb and flow, such as the tides

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
うえ
Grade: 1
した
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (ue, up) +‎ (shita, down).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana うえした, rōmaji ueshita, historical hiragana うへした)

  1. up and down, the upper and the lower
  2. the nobility and the commoners
  3. (in reference to western-style clothing) upper clothing (such as shirts and jackets) and lower clothing (such as trousers and socks)
  4. outerwear and underwear
  5. upside-down
IdiomsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 1
しも
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (kami, up, upper; first) +‎ (shimo, down, lower; last).[1][2]

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana かみしも, rōmaji kamishimo)

  1. the upper and the lower
    1. (more specifically) upstream and downstream
    2. (more specifically) upstage and downstage
    3. (more specifically) high status and low status
    4. (more specifically) the city and the countryside
    5. (more specifically) the upper body and the lower body
    6. (more specifically) the first three lines and the last two lines of a traditional waka poem
    7. (more specifically) the first half the last half of a month
  2. various things

Pronunciation 2Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Alternative formsEdit
NounEdit

上下 (hiragana かみしも, rōmaji kamishimo)

  1. (traditional Japanese clothing) the robe and hakama as a set
  2. (by extension) extreme formality

Etymology 8Edit

Kanji in this term
か(り)
Grade: 1
め(り)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上り (kari, rising in tone, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る karu, “to rise in tone”) +‎ 下り (meri, falling in tone, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下る meru, “to fall in tone”).[1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana かりめり, rōmaji karimeri)

  1. (music) a rise in tone and a fall in tone

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana かりめりする, rōmaji karimeri suru)

  1. (music) to rise and fall in tone

Etymology 9Edit

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on’yomi

/ɕauka//ɕɔːka//ɕoːka/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 (dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Cantonese reading soeng6 haa6 or Hakka song-ha.

The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana しょうか, rōmaji shōka, historical hiragana しやうか)

  1. up and down
  2. the upper and the lower (especially, the rulers and the ruled)
  3. rising and falling
  4. an exchange of opinions

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana しょうかする, rōmaji shōka suru, historical hiragana しやうかする)

  1. to rise and fall
  2. to exchange opinions

Etymology 10Edit

Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on’yomi

/d͡ʑauka//d͡ʑɔːka//d͡ʑoːka/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 (dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Min Nan alternative reading chiūⁿ hā.

A mixed reading, using the goon of and the kan'on of ka.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana じょうか, rōmaji jōka, historical hiragana じやうか)

  1. up and down
  2. high grade and low grade
  3. the upper and lower houses of the Diet or parliament
  4. ascending and descending, climbing up and climbing down

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana じょうかする, rōmaji jōka suru, historical hiragana じやうかする)

  1. to ascend and descend, to climb up and climb down

Etymology 11Edit

Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on’yomi

/d͡ʑauɡe//d͡ʑɔːɡe//d͡ʑoːɡe/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 (dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Cantonese reading soeng6 haa6, Hakka song-ha, or Min Nan alternative reading chiūⁿ hā.

The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana じょうげ, rōmaji jōge, historical hiragana じやうげ)

  1. the high and the low, the upper and the lower
  2. (clothing) a suit, a set of clothing consisting of garments for the upper and lower body
  3. rising and falling, ascent and descent
  4. the city and the country (the city is considered “up”)
  5. north and south (north is considered “up”)
  6. volumes one and two of a two-volume book or other document
  7. roundtrip travel on a river, going both upstream and downstream
  8. high rank and low rank
  9. the nobility and the commoners
  10. the lord and the ministers
  11. the old and the young
  12. an exchange of words, a discussion, question and answer
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana じょうげする, rōmaji jōge suru, historical hiragana じやうげする)

  1. to rise and fall, to ascend and descend
  2. to travel roundtrip on a river, going both upstream and downstream
  3. to exchange words, to discuss, to question and answer

Etymology 12Edit

Kanji in this term
のぼ(り)
Grade: 1
お(り)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上ぼり (nobori, climbing, going up, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る noboru, “to climb, to go up”) +‎ 下り (ori, descending, going down, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下りる oriru, “to descend, to go down”).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana のぼりおり, rōmaji noboriori)

  1. ascending and descending, climbing and coming back down (particularly as of a person or thing travelling or moving up and down, such as stairs or levels)

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana のぼりおりする, rōmaji noboriori suru)

  1. to ascend and descend, to climb and come back down (particularly as of a person or thing travelling or moving up and down, such as stairs or levels)

Etymology 13Edit

Kanji in this term
のぼ(り)
Grade: 1
くだ(り)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of 上ぼり (nobori, climbing, going up, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る noboru, “to climb, to go up”) +‎ 下り (kudari, descending, coming down, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下る kudaru, “to descend a path, to come down a path”).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

上下 (hiragana のぼりくだり, rōmaji noborikudari)

  1. climbing up and climbing down (particularly as of a person or path travelling or moving up and down, such as a road going uphill and downhill in the mountains)
  2. going upstream and downstream (such as on a river, or on a highway with “up” indicating towards a city)

VerbEdit

上下する (suru conjugation, hiragana のぼりくだりする, rōmaji noborikudari suru)

  1. to climb up and climb down
  2. to go upstream and downstream (such as on a river, or on a highway with “up” indicating towards a city)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN