U+5C4E, 屎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C4E

[U+5C4D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C4F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 44, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 尸火木 (SFD), four-corner 77294, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 301, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7689
  • Dae Jaweon: page 598, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 973, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5C4E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hliʔ, *hri): phonetic (OC *hli, body) + semantic (rice). The component was originally three ( , representing , as seen in  ), four ( , representing ) or five dots (as seen in  ) forming a ideogrammic representation of faeces in the oracle bone script, with four dots being the most common variant, thus representing a man defecating with faeces coming out of the backside. The Shang dynasty variants saw the ("body") component interchangeable with ("human"); later, by the Western Zhou dynasty, variants with four dots became the dominant and sole-surviving form, however examples from this time period also exist where the component is mistaken for ("tail"), as seen in  . During the Warring States period, the component became corrupted[1] into .

Shuowen Jiezi does not feature the character, however it does contain 𦳊 and 𡕝. 𦳊 is listed in Shuowen as deriving from ("grass") and ("stomach"), while 𡲴 is listed as the ancient form of (“migration”), however in reality this is not the case; 𡲴 is an erroneous form of the variant containing , where the tail portion of the component is mistakenly written as . During the Zhou dynasty, was often used as a phonetic borrowing for (OC *selʔ); moreover, during the Warring States period, the Chu script character for consisted of with an additional (modern radical form ) added[1] to represent the meaning of walking.

Following transition to the clerical script, a variety of alternate forms emerged:

  • The 米 component was replaced with phonetic component (OC *hliʔ) thus creating the variant form 𡱁;
  • Some variants added another radical to create 𥻐 and 𥺶;
  • Existing variants containing the component became 𡲔, 𡱵 and 𡲔;
  • The body portion of 𡲴 also became further corrupted into (zhǐ), creating 𡕝;
  • The tail portion of -based variants became corrupted into , creating 𡲑;
  • The component corrupted into 广, creating 𢈍;
  • Even the variant form 𢈍 became corrupted, where the 广 was simplified into , creating .

All of these variant forms failed to gain widespread usage, and eventually faded into obscurity while remained the dominant character variant.

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kləj (excrement).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sái - vernacular;
  • sí/sír/sú - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (17)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕˠiɪX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕᵚiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕiɪX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕjiX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕjiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǐ
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    si2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǐ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syijX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[qʰ]ijʔ/
    English excrement

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11399
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hliʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. excrement; poop (Classifier: m;  c;  c)
    2. secretion from the body; tear, earwax, snot, etc.
    3. residue; waste; debris
    4. (vulgar) worthless; useless; despicable
    5. (vulgar) useless thing
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hiɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xjɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hi/
    Li
    Rong
    /xi/
    Wang
    Li
    /xi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hei1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[qʰ]ij/ (dialect: *qʰ- > *x-, no palatalization)
    English moan

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11401
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hri/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 殿屎 (“to groan”).

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Li Shoukui (李守奎) (April 2015), ““屎”與“徙之古文”考 [On the ancient glyphs of “屎” and “徙”]”, in 出土文獻[1], volume 6, Tsinghua University, archived from the original on 11 January 2021, retrieved 11 January 2021, pages 154-162

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. excrement, feces, poop

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: (shi)
    • Kan-on: (shi)
    • Kun: くそ (kuso, ); ばば (baba, )

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くそ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Japonic *kuso. Cognate with 臭い (kusai, stinky, smelly), 腐る (kusaru, to rot, to become stinky).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (くそ) (kuso

    1. (colloquial) feces, excrement
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    InterjectionEdit

    (くそ) (kuso

    1. (swear word) shit
    Usage notesEdit

    This is not considered as profane as the English glosses. For instance, a child of five using the Japanese interjection kuso would be unremarkable, whereas it would be very socially inappropriate for a child of five to use the English interjection shit.

    PrefixEdit

    (くそ) (kuso-

    1. A derogatory prefix.
      (くそ)(じじ)
      kusojijī
      crappy old man

    SuffixEdit

    (くそ) (-kuso

    1. A derogatory emphasizing suffix.
      下手(へた)(くそ)
      hetakuso
      crappy bad at something; to be shit at doing something
      襤褸(ぼろ)(くそ)
      borokuso
      broken down for shit, raggedy-ass

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ばば
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Appears to derive from baby talk.[1][2] Compare English poopoo.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (ばば) (baba

    1. (children's word): poopoo, poop, dookie
    2. (children's word): something unclean
    IdiomsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (ttong si))

    1. Hanja form? of (feces, excrement).

    (eumhun 끙끙거릴 (kkeungkkeunggeoril hi))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: thỉ, xái

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.