See also:
U+7C73, 米
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7C73

[U+7C72]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7C74]
U+2F76, ⽶
KANGXI RADICAL RICE

[U+2F75]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F77]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 119, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 火木 (FD), four-corner 90904, composition (GHJKV) or (T) or (T))

  1. Kangxi radical #119, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 906, character 31
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 26832
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1331, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3141, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7C73

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • (Min Dong)
  • (Min Nan)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – rice kernels.

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma-j ~ mej (rice; paddy). Cognate with Garo mi (rice), Atong (India) mai (rice), Jingpho ma (rice; paddy), Rabha মাই (mai), Dimasa mai.

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mi²¹⁴/
Harbin /mi²¹³/
Tianjin /mi¹³/
Jinan /mi⁵⁵/
Qingdao /mi⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /mi⁵³/
Xi'an /mi⁵³/
Xining /mji⁵³/
Yinchuan /mi⁵³/
Lanzhou /mi⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /mi⁵¹/
Wuhan /mi⁴²/
Chengdu /mi⁵³/
Guiyang /mi⁴²/
Kunming /mi⁵³/
Nanjing /mi²¹²/
Hefei /mz̩²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /mi⁵³/
Pingyao /mi⁵³/
Hohhot /mi⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /mi²³/
Suzhou /mi³¹/
Hangzhou /mi⁵³/
Wenzhou /mei³⁵/
Hui Shexian /mi³⁵/
Tunxi /me²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mi⁴¹/
Xiangtan /mi⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /mi²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /mi³¹/
Taoyuan /mi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mɐi²³/
Nanning /mei²⁴/
Hong Kong /mɐi¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bi⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mi³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mi²¹/
/mi⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /bi⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /vi²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter mejX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/meiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/meiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mɛiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mɛjX/
Li
Rong
/meiX/
Wang
Li
/mieiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mieiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mai5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mejX ›
Old
Chinese
/*(C.)mˁ[e]jʔ/
English millet or rice grains, dehusked and polished

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9003
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*miːʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. hulled or husked uncooked rice (Classifier: m c mn;  m)
  2. husked seed
  3. grain-like things
  4. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for 米粉 (mǐfěn, “rice vermicelli”).
    星洲炒  ―  Xīngzhōu chǎo  ―  Singapore-style noodles
    雪菜火鴨 [Cantonese, trad.]
    雪菜火鸭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    syut3 coi3 fo2 aap3 si1 man1 mai5 [Jyutping]
    braised rice vermicelli with pickled mustard and shredded roast duck
  5. (Cantonese, Shanghainese, slang) money
    [Cantonese]  ―  jau5 mai5 [Jyutping]  ―  rich
    [Shanghainese]  ―  5pe 6mi [Wugniu]  ―  to earn money
  6. (Shanghainese, slang) ten thousand of a currency designation; ten grand (Classifier: w)
  7. a surname
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

Short for 米突 (mǐtū), from English metre.

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. metre
    [Teochew]  ―  bhi2 san1 [Peng'im]  ―  1.3 metres
      ―  Wǒ yǒu yī jiǔ gāo.  ―  I'm 1.9 metres tall.
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

See also edit

  • (unit of length): (zhàng), (chǐ), (cùn), (fēn)

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. rice
  2. (ateji) meter
  3. (ateji) America
  4. (ateji) United States

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
こめ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨ko2me2 → */kəməj//kome/

From Old Japanese. First appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE, with the phonetic man'yōgana spelling 渠梅.[1] In turn, from Proto-Japonic *kəmay.

Many theories exist regarding the ultimate derivation:

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(こめ) (kome

  1. rice (husked grains of the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa), one of the five grains
    Hypernym: 五穀 (gokoku)
Derived terms edit
Proverbs edit
Coordinate terms edit
See also edit

Proper noun edit

(こめ) (Kome

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
よね
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo2nai⟩ → */jənai/ → */jəne//jone/

First attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE).

Possibly from Proto-Japonic *jənaC- (Vovin, 1998)[7] and related to (ine, rice plant).

Unknown "-C-" consonantal segment, reconstructed by Vovin, seems unlikely considering [a ~ e] vowel alternation, seen in bound form yona- and free form yone:[8]

Compare (awi → ai, indigo) from (awo → ao, blue) + (i, emphatic nominative particle(Can this(+) etymology be sourced?))[9] against 白い /siroi/ from ⟨siro1ki1.[10]

The colloquial sense is derived from the components of the kanji: (hachi, eight) + (, ten) + (hachi, eight).

Noun edit

(よね) (yone

  1. the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa
    Synonym: (ine)
  2. rice (husked grains of the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa)
  3. (colloquial) an eighty-eight-year-old
    Synonym: 米寿 (beiju)
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(よね) (Yone

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
めめ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Probably a shortened reduplication of kome (see above). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

First cited to a work from 1275.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(めめ) (meme

  1. (colloquial) rice (husked grains of the rice plant)

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
めーとる
Grade: 2
(ateji)
kun’yomi

Borrowing from French mètre.[4]

The use of this kanji is attested in the Meiji period and is an example of ateji (当て字), shortened from Mandarin 米突 (mǐtū), see Chinese section above.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(メートル) (mētoru

  1. Rare spelling of メートル (mētoru): metre (SI unit of length)
  2. Rare spelling of メーター (mētā): meter (a device or implement used for measurement)
Coordinate terms edit
Derived terms
See also

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
べい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC mejX).

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(べい) (beiべい (bei)?

  1. rice
    米価(べいか) (beika, rice price)
  2. Short for アメリカ合衆国亜米利加合衆国 (Amerika Gasshūkoku, United States (a country)).
    米国(べいこく) (Beikoku, US)
    日米関係(にちべいかんけい) (Nichi-Bei kankei, Japan–United States relations)
  3. Short for アメリカ亜米利加 (Amerika, the Americas (a region)).
    南米(なんべい) (Nanbei, South America)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^
    2011 December, Laurent Sagart, “How Many Independent Rice Vocabularies in Asia?”, in Rice[2], volume 4, numbers 3-4, →DOI, →ISSN, pages 121–133:
  3. ^
    2017 January 1, Martine Robbeets, “Austronesian influence and Transeurasian ancestry in Japanese: A case of farming/language dispersal”, in Language Dynamics and Change[3], volume 7, number 2, →DOI, →ISSN, pages 210–251:
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ Kyōsuke Kindaichi, Haruhiko Kindaichi, Hidetoshi Kenbō, Takeshi Shibata, and Tadao Yamada, editors (1974) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Second edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō
  6. ^ 1960, Hirayama Teruo (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN
  7. ^ Whitman, John (2012). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan, Rice, Volume 4, Issue 3–4, pp 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0
  8. ^ Salingre, Maëlys Apophonic toponyms in Japanese 2019
  9. ^ Thomas Pellard (2013). Ryukyuan perspectives on the proto-Japonic vowel system. Frellesvig, Bjarke; Sells, Peter. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 20, CSLI Publications, pp.81–96, 2013.
  10. ^ Hamano, S. "Voicing of Obstruents in Old Japanese: Evidence from the Sound-Symbolic Stratum." Journal of East Asian Linguistics (2000) 9. 3: 207-225. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008367619295

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC mejX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 몡〯 (Yale: myěy)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[5] ᄡᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: psól) 미〯 (Yale: )

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ssal mi))

  1. Hanja form? of (rice). [affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [6]

Old Korean edit

Suffix edit

(*-moy?)

  1. Apparently a verbal causative suffix; because, since

Reconstruction notes edit

  • This form is attested commonly in the hyangga poems of the first millennium, but nowhere else.
  • In the twentieth century, this was conventionally compared to Modern Korean 으매 (-eumae, because, since), but this seems impossible given that the modern construction is a grammaticalization of elements not found in Old Korean, and is not attested in Middle Korean.
  • Some scholars believe it is a mere orthographic variant of (*-mye, connective suffix).

Further reading edit

  • 이용 (Yi-Yong) (1999) 연결 어미의 형성에 관한 연구 [Study of the formation of connective suffixes], Seoul City University (PhD), pages 144—146
  • 김지오 (Kim Ji-o) (2019), “고대국어 연결어미 연구의 현황과 과제 [The conditions and future tasks of analyzing connective endings in Old Korean]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 43, pages 55–87

Vietnamese edit

Chữ Hán edit

: Hán Việt readings: mễ ((mạc)(lễ)(thiết))[1][2]
: Nôm readings: mễ[1][2][3][4], [1]

  1. chữ Hán form of mễ (rice grains).

Compounds edit

References edit