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U+8D8A, 越
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8D8A

[U+8D89]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8D8B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 156, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 土人戈女 (GOIV), four-corner 43805, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1216, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 37110
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1686, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3480, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8D8A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𫑛

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰʷaːd, *kʰʷad, *ɢʷad
*qʰʷaːd
*ɢʷaːd, *ɢʷad
*kʰʷad
*ɢʷad
*ɢʷad
*ɢʷad
*qʰʷrɯd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷaːd, *ɢʷad): semantic  (to walk or run) + phonetic  (OC *ɢʷad) — to go over; to cross.

EtymologyEdit

 
or : large battle-axe used as a symbol of authority in ancient China.
“to go over; to surpass; to overstep; to turn”
Related to 𨒋 (“to go over”), (“to go beyond; to transgress”) (Wang, 1982) and perhaps (OC *ɢʷa, “to go”) (Schuessler, 2007).
“modal particle”
Related to (OC *ɢʷad), (OC *ɢʷa) and (OC *ɢʷad) (Wang, 1982).
“Yue; Viet; State of Yue”
Related to (OC *ɢʷad, “Yue; Cantonese”).
This is a general name for numerous indigenous tribes in ancient southern China, which are collectively called Baiyue. The ancient State of Yue during the Zhou dynasty of China was initially written as (OC *ɢʷad, “large battle-axe”) — alternatively written as 𫑛 — and it is commonly believed the name Yue originates from this instrument, which was widely found in neolithic cultures of southeastern China and served as a symbol of authority and royalty.
See (OC *ɢʷad) for more on the etymology.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • uêg8 - Chaozhou;
  • uag8 - Shantou.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /yɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ye⁵³/
    Jinan /yə²¹/
    Qingdao /yə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ye²⁴/
    Xi'an /yɛ²¹/
    Xining /yu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ye¹³/
    Lanzhou /yə¹³/
    Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ye²¹³/
    Chengdu /ye³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /yeʔ⁵/
    Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
    Pingyao /yʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioʔ¹/
    /ɦyɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦyəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /jy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ue²²/
    Tunxi /yɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ye²⁴/
    Xiangtan /yæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /yɵʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iat̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʒet̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyt̚²/
    Nanning /yt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jyt̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /uat̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /uoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /uak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuak̚³/ 超~
    /zuak̚⁵/ ~過

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (68)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʉɐt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦʷiɐt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣiuɐt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuat̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣiuɐt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭwɐt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯wɐt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷat/
    English pass over

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 16333
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷad/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to pass over; to cross; to cross over
    2. to go over; to climb over; to jump over
      翻山 / 翻山  ―  fānshānyuèlǐng  ―  to pass over mountains and ridges
    3. (of time) to pass; to go through
    4. (figuratively) to go outside of; to exceed; to surpass; to overstep; to transgress
        ―  chāoyuè  ―  to surpass
        ―  yuèjiè  ―  to overstep a boundary
    5. to propagate; to spread; to publicise
    6. to disperse; to scatter; to fade away
    7. to fall; to relax; to become loosened
    8. to rob; to seize by force
    9. (Min Nan) to turn; to turn around
    10. more; -er
      …………  ―  yuè...... yuè......  ―  the more ..., the more ...
      …… / ……  ―  yuèláiyuè......  ―  to become increasingly ...
    11. Ancient meaningless sentence-initial modal particle.
    12. (, ) The Yue or Viet: collective name for numerous ancient non-Han tribes in southern China and northern Vietnam; Baiyue.
    13. (historical) (~國) The State of Yue: ancient state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of Chinese history, in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
    14. General name for the region of southern China, especially the Guangxi and Guangdong provinces.
    15. Name for the Zhejiang province of China, especially the eastern parts of the province or areas in the vicinity of Shaoxing city.
    16. Short for 越南 (“Vietnam”).
    17. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    • (more):

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (64)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦʷɑt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwat̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huó
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 16330
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷaːd/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (music) small hole at the bottom of a se, a traditional Chinese musical instrument
    2. to bore a hole; to drill a hole

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    えつ
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦʉɐt̚, ɦuɑt̚).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana えつ, rōmaji etsu, historical hiragana ゑつ)

    1. pass over; cross over; go over
    2. pass; go through (of time)
    3. exceed; surpass; transgress (limit, extent)
    4. Abbreviation of 越南 (Betonamu, Vietnam).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana えつ, rōmaji Etsu, historical hiragana ゑつ)

    1. (historical) the Yue people to the south of ancient China

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (wol, hwal)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit