U+8D8A, 越
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8D8A

[U+8D89]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8D8B]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 156, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 土人戈女 (GOIV), four-corner 43805, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1216, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 37110
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1686, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3480, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8D8A

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms 𫑛

Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɢʷaːd, *ɢʷad) : semantic (to walk or run) + phonetic (OC *ɢʷad) — to go over; to cross.

Etymology

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(yuè) or (yuè): large battle-axe used as a symbol of authority in ancient China.
“to go over; to surpass; to overstep; to turn”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to travel; to go through).
Related to 𨒋 (“to go over”), (“to go beyond; to transgress”) (Wang, 1982) and perhaps (OC *ɢʷa, “to go”) (Schuessler, 2007).
“modal particle”
Related to (OC *ɢʷad), (OC *ɢʷa) and (OC *ɢʷad) (Wang, 1982).
“Yue; Viet; State of Yue”
Related to (OC *ɢʷad, “Yue; Cantonese”).
This is a general name for numerous indigenous tribes in ancient southern China, which are collectively called Baiyue. The ancient State of Yue during the Zhou dynasty of China was initially written as (OC *ɢʷad, “large battle-axe”) — alternatively written as 𫑛 — and it is commonly believed the name Yue originates from this instrument, which was widely found in neolithic cultures of southeastern China and served as a symbol of authority and royalty.
See (OC *ɢʷad) for more on the etymology.

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • uêg8 - Chaozhou;
  • uag8 - Shantou.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /yɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ye⁵³/
Jinan /yə²¹/
Qingdao /yə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ye²⁴/
Xi'an /yɛ²¹/
Xining /yu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ye¹³/
Lanzhou /yə¹³/
Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ye²¹³/
Chengdu /ye³¹/
Guiyang /ie²¹/
Kunming /iɛ³¹/
Nanjing /yeʔ⁵/
Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
Pingyao /yʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦioʔ¹/
/ɦyɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦyəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦyəʔ²/
Wenzhou /jy²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ue²²/
Tunxi /yɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ye²⁴/
Xiangtan /yæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /yɵʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʒet̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jyt̚²/
Nanning /yt̚²²/
Hong Kong /jyt̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /uat̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /uoʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /uɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /uak̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zuak̚³/ 超~
/zuak̚⁵/ ~過

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (68)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter hjwot
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦʉɐt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷiɐt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɐt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuat̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuɐt̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwɐt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wɐt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yuè
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyut6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuè
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwot ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷat/
English pass over

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 16333
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷad/

Definitions

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  1. to pass over; to cross; to cross over
  2. to go over; to climb over; to jump over
    翻山翻山  ―  fānshānyuèlǐng  ―  to pass over mountains and ridges
  3. (of time) to pass; to go through
  4. (figurative) to go outside of; to exceed; to surpass; to overstep; to transgress
      ―  chāoyuè  ―  to surpass
      ―  yuèjiè  ―  to overstep a boundary
  5. to propagate; to spread; to publicise
  6. to disperse; to scatter; to fade away
  7. to fall; to relax; to become loosened
  8. (literary) to rob; to seize by force
  9. (Southern Min) to turn; to turn around
    [Hokkien]  ―  oa̍t-thâu [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to turn one's head
  10. more; -er
    …………  ―  yuè...... yuè......  ―  the more ..., the more ...
    …………  ―  yuèláiyuè......  ―  to become increasingly ...
  11. Ancient meaningless sentence-initial modal particle.
  12. (, ) The Yue or Viet: collective name for numerous ancient non-Han tribes in southern China and northern Vietnam; Baiyue.
  13. (historical) (~國) The State of Yue: ancient state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of Chinese history, in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
  14. General name for the region of southern China, especially the Guangxi and Guangdong provinces.
  15. Name for the Zhejiang province of China, especially the eastern parts of the province or areas in the vicinity of Shaoxing city.
  16. Short for 越南 (“Vietnam”).
  17. a surname

Synonyms

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  • (more):

Compounds

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Descendants

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  • Vietnamese: vượt (to pass over)

Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (64)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter hwat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwat̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wut6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 16330
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaːd/

Definitions

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  1. (music) small hole at the bottom of a se, a traditional Chinese musical instrument
  2. to bore a hole; to drill a hole

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. pass over

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
えつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC hjwot|hwat).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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(えつ) (etsuゑつ (wetu)?

  1. pass over; cross over; go over
  2. pass; go through (of time)
  3. exceed; surpass; transgress (limit, extent)

Proper noun

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(えつ) (Etsuゑつ (wetu)?

  1. (historical) the Yue people to the south of ancient China
  2. Abbreviation of 越南 (Etsunan, Vietnam).

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC hjwot).

Hanja

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(eumhun 넘을 (neomeul wol))

  1. Hanja form? of (pass over).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC hwat).

Hanja

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(eumhun 부들자리 (budeuljari hwal))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (small hole at the bottom of a se, a traditional Chinese musical instrument).

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Chữ Hán

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: Hán Việt readings: việt[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: vượt[1][2][3][4], việt[1][2][5], vớt[1][2], vẹt[1][4], vát[4][5], vịt[1], vọt[1], vợt[1], nhông[3], vác[3], vót[3], vệt[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of Việt (short for Việt Nam).
  2. Nôm form of vượt (to exceed; to cross over).

References

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