See also: and
U+91CD, 重
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CD

[U+91CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CE]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 166, +2, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹十田土 (HJWG), four-corner 20104, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1291, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40132
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1791, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3680, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+91CD

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡍴 ancient
𡍺 ancient
𨤣
𧝎
𧸌

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *doŋ, *doŋʔ, *doŋs) and ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : semantic (man) + phonetic (OC *toːŋ, bag) – a man carrying a bag. A glyph (“earth”) was later added to show that the bag-carrying man is standing on the ground. From this composition is the current form.

Etymology

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Schuessler (2007) notes that the etymology is uncertain and compares the word to Burmese စုံ (cum, to be sufficient; pair), which STEDT puts under Proto-Sino-Tibetan *dzum ~ tsum (pair).

Pronunciation 3 is the exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1.

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • dâe̤ng - vernacular;
  • dê̤ṳng - literary.
Note:
  • tāng/tǎng - vernacular;
  • tiōng/tiǒng - literary.
Note:
  • dang6 - vernacular;
  • dong6 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjowngX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨoŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖioŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡioŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖuawŋX/
Li
Rong
/ȡioŋX/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭwoŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯woŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhòng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjowngX ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-t<r>oŋʔ/
English heavy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 17462
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*doŋʔ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. heavy
    Antonym: (qīng)
    書包 [Cantonese, trad.]
    书包 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 go3 syu1 baau1 gam3 cung5 ge2? [Jyutping]
    Why is your schoolbag so heavy?
  2. weight
    蘋果100 [MSC, trad.]
    苹果100 [MSC, simp.]
    Yī ge píngguǒ zhòng yuē 100 kè. [Pinyin]
    An apple weighs about 100 g on average.
  3. deep; grave; serious; severe
      ―  zhòng  ―  to punish severely
    傷勢伤势  ―  shāngshì hěn zhòng  ―  to be seriously wounded
      ―  Nǎi wèi zhòng le xiē.  ―  It's a bit too milky.
  4. considerable (in amount)
Synonyms
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Compounds

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also includes Pronunciation 2

Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • dâe̤ng - vernacular;
  • dê̤ṳng - literary.
Note:
  • tāng/tǎng - vernacular;
  • tiōng/tiǒng - literary.
Note:
  • dang6 - vernacular;
  • dong6 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjowngH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖuawŋH/
Li
Rong
/ȡioŋH/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhòng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjowngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-t<r>oŋʔ-s/
English weight (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 17463
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*doŋs/

Definitions

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  1. weight
  2. weighty; important
      ―  zhòngrèn  ―  important task
  3. grave; serious
  4. solemn
      ―  lóngzhòng  ―  grand; solemn
      ―  zhuāngzhòng  ―  solemn; serious
  5. prudent
  6. to respect; to attach importance to
    義輕利义轻利  ―  zhòngyìqīnglì  ―  to value righteousness and care little for material gain
  7. (Cantonese) still
    alt. forms:
  8. (Cantonese) even more
    alt. forms:
Synonyms
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Pronunciation 3

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Note:
  • tṳ̀ng - vernacular;
  • dṳ̀ng - literary.
Note:
  • têng, tâⁿ - vernacular;
  • tiông - literary.
Note: cong5 - for 重慶.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjowng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȡioŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m]-troŋ/
English repeat; double

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 17457
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*doŋ/

Definitions

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  1. to repeat; to duplicate
  2. to stack up; to pile up; to overlay
  3. again; once more
      ―  chóngféng  ―  to meet again
    [Cantonese]  ―  cung4 zou6 [Jyutping]  ―  to redo; to do again
    家園家园  ―  chóngjiàn jiāyuán  ―  to rebuild one's home
  4. Classifier for layers of an object.
    人格障礙人格障碍  ―  duōchóngréngézhàng'ài  ―  multiple personality disorder

Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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From Middle Chinese (MC drjowngX); compare Mandarin (zhòng):

From Middle Chinese (MC drjowng); compare Mandarin (chóng):

From native Japanese roots:

Compounds

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Etymology 1

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/pe//ɸe//he/. Presumably related with Goguryeo (*peT).

Noun

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() (he

  1. a division
  2. something that divides two objects
Derived terms
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See also
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  • () (e)

Etymology 2

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/-pe//-ɸe//-we//-e/. Cognate with (he, division). The divergent phonological development is due to the non-null environment caused by being suffixed to the previous morpheme.

Suffix

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() (-e (fe)?

  1. the number of overlaps; fold, layer
Derived terms
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Noun

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(おも) (omo

  1. main, principal, important

Alternative forms

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See also

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Etymology 3

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Prefix

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(じゅう) (jū-

  1. heavy, weighty
  2. involving large-scale manufacture, heavy
  3. great in degree, heavy, serious, severe, hard, difficult

Korean

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Hanja

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(eumhun 무거울 (mugeoul jung))

  1. Hanja form? of (heavy).

Etymology 2

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Hanja

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(eumhun 아이 (ai dong))

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (child).)
  2. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (child).)

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: trọng, chồng, chuộng, trộng, trụng, trùng, chõng, trửng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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