- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈpluːm/, (obsolete) /ˈpljuːm/
- (General American) IPA(key): /ˈplum/
Audio (GA) (file)
- Rhymes: -uːm
From Late Middle English plum, plume (“feather; plumage”), from Anglo-Norman plum, plume and Middle French, Old French plume, plome (“plumage; down used for stuffing pillows, etc.; pen, quill”) (modern French plume (“feather; pen, quill; pen nib; (figurative) writer”)), and directly from its etymon Latin plūma (“feather; plumage; down”) (compare Late Latin plūma (“pen, quill”)), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *plewk- (“to fly; to flow; to run; to flap with hands; to splash”). The English word is a doublet of pluma.
plume (plural plumes)
- (archaic, literary and poetic) A feather of a bird, especially a large or showy one used as a decoration.
- 1667, John Milton, “Book III”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: […] [Samuel Simmons], […], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: […], London: Basil Montagu Pickering […], 1873, OCLC 230729554, lines 650–654:
- Under a Coronet his flowing haire / In curles on either cheek plaid, wings he wore / Of many a colourd plume ſprinkl'd with Gold, / His habit fit for ſpeed ſuccinct, and held / Before his decent ſteps a Silver wand.
- 1764, “Onuphrio Muralto”, chapter I, in William Marshal [pseudonym; Horace Walpole], transl., The Castle of Otranto, […], Dublin: […] J. Hoey, […], published 1765, OCLC 837383313, page 4:
- The firſt thing that ſtruck Manfred’s eyes was a groupe of his ſervants, endeavouring to raiſe ſomething that appeared to him a mountain of ſable plumes. [...] [W]hat a ſight for a father’s eyes!—he beheld his child daſhed to pieces, and almoſt buried under an enormous helmet, an hundred times more large than any caſque ever made for human being, and ſhaded with a proportionable quantity of black feathers.
- 2020 August 4, Richard Conniff, “They may Look Goofy, but Ostriches are Nobody’s Fool”, in National Geographic, Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, ISSN 0027-9358, OCLC 1049714034, archived from the original on 9 October 2020:
- [T]he most valuable cargo carried by the Titanic wasn't diamonds or gold but 12 cases of ostrich plumes valued at $2.3 million in today's money.
- (archaic, literary and poetic) A cluster of feathers worn as an ornament, especially on a helmet; a hackle.
- a. 1701, John Dryden, “The Last Parting of Hector and Andromache. From the Sixth Book of the Iliad.”, in The Miscellaneous Works of John Dryden, […], volume IV, London: […] J[acob] and R[ichard] Tonson, […], published 1760, OCLC 863244003, page 455:
- The fearful infant turn'd his head away, / And on his nurſe's neck reclining lay, / His unknown father ſhunning with affright, / And looking back on ſo uncouth a ſight; / Daunted to ſee a face with ſteel o'er-ſpread, / And his high plume that nodded o'er his head.
- (figuratively) A token of honour or prowess; that on which one prides oneself; a prize or reward.
- Synonym: feather in one's cap
- 1667, John Milton, “Book VI”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: […] [Samuel Simmons], […], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: […], London: Basil Montagu Pickering […], 1873, OCLC 230729554, lines 159–162:
- But well thou comſt / Before thy fellows, ambitious to win / From me ſom Plume, that thy ſucceſs may ſhow / Deſtruction to the reſt: [...]
- The vane (“flattened, web-like part”) of a feather, especially when on a quill pen or the fletching of an arrow.
- Short for .
- Things resembling a feather.
- A cloud formed by a dispersed substance fanning out or spreading.
- After the explosion, a plume of smoke could be seen in the sky for miles around.
- The pollutant creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer.
- An upward spray of mist or water.
- (astronomy) An arc of glowing material (chiefly gases) erupting from the surface of a star.
- (botany) A large and flexible panicle of an inflorescence resembling a feather, such as is seen in certain large ornamental grasses.
- (geology) Short for .
- (zoology) A body part resembling a feather.
- A cloud formed by a dispersed substance fanning out or spreading.
Sense 1 (“to adorn, cover, or furnish with feathers or plumes”) is derived from Anglo-Norman plumer (“to cover with or provide with feathers”), or its etymon Latin plūmāre, the present active infinitive of plūmō (“to grow feathers, to fledge; to cover with feathers, to feather; to embroider with a feathery pattern”) (and compare Late Latin plūmō (“to attach feathers to arrows; of a hawk: to pluck the feathers from prey; (figurative) to celebrate, praise”)), from plūma (“feather; plumage; down”) (see etymology 1) + -ō (suffix forming regular first-conjugation verbs).
Senses 2–4 (“to arrange and preen the feathers of; to congratulate (oneself) proudly; to strip of feathers”) are from Late Middle English plumen (“to remove the feathers from a bird; of a hawk: to pluck the feathers or the head from prey”) [and other forms], from Anglo-Norman and Middle French plumer (“to remove the feathers from a bird; to pull out (hairs, especially from a moustache); to rob”), from plūma (see etymology 1).
- (transitive, also figuratively) To adorn, cover, or furnish with feathers or plumes, or as if with feathers or plumes.
- (transitive, reflexive) Chiefly of a bird: to arrange and preen the feathers of, specifically in preparation for flight; hence (figuratively), to prepare for (something).
- 1822 May 21, Geoffrey Crayon [pseudonym; Washington Irving], “Hawking”, in Bracebridge Hall, or The Humourists. A Medley. […], volume I, New York, N.Y.: […] C. S. Van Winkle, […], OCLC 1141021983, page 185:
- I make no doubt she has made the best of her way back to the hospitable hall of Sir Watkyn Williams Wynne; and may very possibly be pluming her wings, at this present writing, among the breezy bowers of Wynnstay.
- 1854 January, J. D. Bell, “Lines. Inscribed to My Mother.”, in D[avis] W[asgatt] Clark, editor, The Ladies’ Repository: A Monthly Periodical, Devoted to Literature and Religion, volume XIV, Cincinnati, Oh.: L. Swormstedt and A. Poe; […], OCLC 247142692, page 38, column 2:
- I bless thee that thy angel-presence still infolds me here! / Forgive me, ere thy spirit plumest for the heavenly sphere.
- 1870 September, J. C. H., “The Story of Ruth. A Modern Version.”, in Dublin University Magazine, a Literary and Political Journal, volume LXXVI, number CCCCLIII, Dublin: George Herbert, […]; London: Hurst and Blackett, OCLC 828212439, page 290, column 1:
- [...] Ruth resembled the dove that plumeth its wings in readiness to fly away and be at rest, in the ark of everlasting peace and joy.
- (transitive, reflexive, by extension) To congratulate (oneself) proudly, especially concerning something unimportant or when taking credit for another person's effort; to self-congratulate.
- He plumes himself on his skill.
- 1698, Robert South, Twelve Sermons upon Several Subjects and Occasions:
- pride and plume himself in his Deformities
- 1749, Henry Fielding, “The Adventure of a Company of Officers”, in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume III, London: A[ndrew] Millar […], OCLC 928184292, book VII, page 102:
- We mention this Obſervation, not with any View of pretending to account for ſo odd a Behaviour, but lest ſome Critic should hereafter plume himſelf on diſcovering it.
- 1843 December 19, Charles Dickens, “Stave Three. The Second of the Three Spirits.”, in A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, London: Chapman & Hall, […], OCLC 55746801, page 75:
- Gentlemen of the free-and-easy sort, who plume themselves on being acquainted with a move or two, and being usually equal to the time-of-day, express the wide range of their capacity for adventure by observing that they are good for anything from pitch-and-toss to manslaughter; between which opposite extremes, no doubt, there lies a tolerably wide and comprehensive range of subjects.
- 1856, Homer, “Book XVIII”, in F[rancis] W[illiam] Newman, transl., The Iliad of Homer: Faithfully Translated into Unrhymed English Meter, London: Walton and Maberly, […], OCLC 9860158, lines 130–133, page 322:
- But now thy armour beauteous, / all brass-belaid and sparkling, / Among the Troïans is held: / for motley-helmed Hector / Across his shoulders bearing it / plumeth himself; nor deem I / Long shall he vaunt it; sith alsó / on him o'erhangeth slaughter.
- 1883, Howard Pyle, “How Sir Richard of the Lea Paid His Debts to Emmet”, in The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown, in Nottinghamshire, New York, N.Y.: […] Charles Scribner’s Sons […], OCLC 22773434, part fifth, page 180:
- Meanwhile the young stranger had made his way through the crowd, but, as he passed, he heard all around him such words muttered as, "Look at the cockeril!" "Behold how he plumeth himself!"
- (transitive, archaic) To strip (a bird) of feathers; to pluck.
- Synonym: unplume
- 1622, Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban [i.e. Francis Bacon], The Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh, […], London: […] W[illiam] Stansby for Matthew Lownes, and William Barret, OCLC 1086746628:
- the king cared not to plume his nobility
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Dryden to this entry?)
- (by extension) To peel, to strip completely; to pillage; also, to deprive of power.
- (falconry, obsolete) Of a hawk: to pluck the feathers from prey.
- 1793, Samuel Johnson; George Steevens, “King Henry IV. Part I.”, in William Shakespeare, The Plays of William Shakespeare: […], volume VIII, London: […] T[homas] Longman, […], OCLC 224565638, Act I, scene i, footnote 3, page 366:
- The hauke proineth when ſhe fetcheth oyle with her beake over the taile, and anointeth her feet and her fethers. She plumeth when ſhe pulleth fethers of anie foule and caſteth them from her.
- (intransitive) Of a dispersed substance such as dust or smoke: to fan out or spread in a cloud.
- Smoke plumed from his pipe, then slowly settled towards the floor.
- ^ “plū̆m(e, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- ^ “plume, n.”, in OED Online , Oxford: Oxford University Press, December 2006; “plume, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
- “plume, v.”, in OED Online , Oxford: Oxford University Press, December 2006; “plume, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
- ^ “plū̆men, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
- mantle plume on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- plume (feather) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- plume (fluid dynamics) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
plume f (plural plumes)
- inflection of :
- plume on the French Wikipedia.Wikipedia fr
- “plume” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).
plume f (plural plumis)
- Middle English: plomme, ploume, plum, plumbe, plumme, plowme, ploumme, plome
- → Irish: pluma