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西 U+897F, 西
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-897F

[U+897E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8980]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

西 (radical 146, 西+0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一金田 (MCW), four-corner 10600, composition𠁤)

Usage notesEdit

西 is the 146th radical of the Chinese dictionary. In its few compounds it most often appears at the top in the form 覀 as in . It is important to distinguish it from and .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1595, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2805, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+897F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
西
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character 西
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series (西) (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sɯːl, *sɯːl
*sraːls, *sɯːlʔ
西 *sɯːl
*sɯːl
*sɯːl
*sɯːl, *sɯːls
*sʰɯːns
*hjɯnʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bag or basket, borrowed for phonetic value. Compare (OC *toːŋ, “bundle > east”). Traditionally explained as a pictogram of a bird settling into its nest, which by analogy with the setting of the sun means “west”. This etymology has been disputed (Sears), but Sagart (2004) stands by it.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • se - literary;
  • si - vernacular (limited, e.g. 西瓜).
Note:
  • sai - literary;
  • si1 - vernacular (for 西瓜).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 西
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕi²¹/
    Jinan /ɕi²¹³/
    Qingdao /si²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /si²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕi²¹/
    Xining /ɕji⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕi³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕi⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕi⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /si³¹/
    Hefei /sz̩²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕi¹³/
    /sei¹³/ ~瓜
    Hohhot /ɕi³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
    Suzhou /si⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕi³³/
    Wenzhou /sei³³/
    Hui Shexian /si³¹/
    Tunxi /se¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /si³³/
    Xiangtan /si³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕi⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /si⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /si²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɐi⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐi⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se⁵⁵/
    /sai⁵⁵/ 東~
    /si⁵⁵/ ~瓜
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sai⁵⁴/
    /si⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si³³/
    /sai³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /si²³/
    /tai²³/

    Rime
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /sei/
    Wang
    Li
    /siei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 西 西
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sej › ‹ sej ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-nˤər/ /*s-nˤər/
    English west west

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 西
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13236
    Phonetic
    component
    西
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    西
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɯːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    西

    1. west; western

    Coordinate termsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    西

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. west
    2. Europe, European
    3. kanji used to transliterate foreign languages
    4. Short for 西班牙 (Supein): Spain, Spanish
    5. autumn

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    西
    にし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From adnominal 往にし (inishi, leaving, passing), as the direction of sunset. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    西 (hiragana にし, rōmaji nishi)

    1. west (one of the four cardinal directions)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    2. the West
    3. wind blowing from the west
      Antonym: (higashi)
    4. (theater) in kabukii:
      1. the left side of the stage in the Edo-style
      2. the right side of the stage in Kyoto and Osaka styles
    5. (sumo) lower-ranked wrestlers listed on the left side of a banzuke
      Antonym: (higashi)
    6. a capitalist state (originally western Europe, as opposed to Eastern Bloc countries)
      Synonym: 西側 (nishigawa)
      Antonym: (higashi)
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    西 (hiragana にし, rōmaji Nishi)

    1. (Buddhism) Synonym of 西方浄土 (Saihō Jōdo): the western paradise of Amitabha Buddha
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 西本願寺 (Nishi Hongan-ji): a Buddhist temple in Kyoto
      Synonym: お西 (o-Nishi)
    3. (historical) a red-light district in Edo-period Shinjuku (as it was located west of Edo Castle)
    4. a place name, especially the name of various wards in major cities throughout Japan
    5. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    西
    しゃー
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Possibly a corruption of Mandarin 西 (, west).

    NounEdit

    西 (katakana シャー, rōmaji shā)

    1. (mahjong) west wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of west wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    西 (seo)

    1. west; western

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    西 (hiragana いり, romaji iri)

    NounEdit

    西 (hiragana いり, romaji iri)

    1. the West

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • Sơn Tây 山西
    • Tây Sơn 西山
    • Sài Gòn 西貢
    • phía tây : 費西

    ReferencesEdit

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999