西

See also: , , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
西-order.gif

Alternative formsEdit

  • (based on the small seal script form of the character)

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character 西
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
西-oracle.svg 西-bronze.svg 西-bigseal.svg 西-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a bag or basket, borrowed for phonetic value. Compare (originally "bundle", now "east"). Traditionally explained as a pictogram of a bird settling into its nest, which by analogy with the setting of the sun means "west". This etymology has been disputed[1] but Sagart stands by it.[2]

Han characterEdit

西 (radical 146 西+0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一金田 (MCW), four-corner 10600)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1128, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1595, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2805, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+897F
  1. ^ Chinese Etymology, Richard Sears
  2. ^ Laurent Sagart. The Chinese names of the four directions. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 2004, 124 (1), pp.69-76.

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
西

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations (西)
Variety Location 西
Mandarin Beijing /ɕi⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕi⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕi²¹/
Jinan /ɕi²¹³/
Qingdao /si²¹³/
Zhengzhou /si²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕi²¹/
Xining /ɕji⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕi⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕi³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕi⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕi⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕi⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕi⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕi⁴⁴/
Nanjing /si³¹/
Hefei /sz̩²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕi¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕi¹³/
/sei¹³/ ~瓜
Hohhot /ɕi³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
Suzhou /si⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕi³³/
Wenzhou /sei³³/
Hui Shexian /si³¹/
Tunxi /se¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /si³³/
Xiangtan /si³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕi⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /si⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /si²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɐi⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐi⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se⁵⁵/
/sai⁵⁵/ 东~
/si⁵⁵/ ~瓜
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sai⁵⁴/
/si⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si³³/
/sai³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /si²³/
/tai²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (西, reconstructed)
Character (西), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (16)
Final:
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/sei/ /siei/ /sei/ /sei/ /sɛj/ /siei/ /sɛi/
Old Chinese pronunciation (西, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
西 ‹ sej › /*s-nˤər/ west
西 ‹ sej › /*s-nˤər/ west

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
西 13236 西 1 西 /*sɯːl/

NounEdit

西

  1. west, western

Coordinate termsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Usage notesEdit

西 is the 146th radical of the Chinese dictionary. In its few compounds it most often appears at the top in the form 覀 as in . It is important to distinguish it from and .


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

西

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Usage notesEdit

nishi may be used as separate word. sei, on the other hand, is used mainly in compounds, like 西南 (せいなん seinan) - south west (literally "west south").

Kanji in this term
西
にし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

NounEdit

西 ‎(hiragana にし, romaji nishi)

  1. the west

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

西 ‎(hiragana にし, romaji Nishi)

  1. A surname​.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

西 ‎(seo)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: seo, McCune-Reischauer: sŏ, Yale: se)
  • Name (hangeul): 서녘 (revised: seonyeok, McCune-Reischauer: sŏnyŏk, Yale: senyekh)
  • Examples
    • 서부 西部 (seobu) western (part)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

西 ‎(hiragana いり, romaji iri)

NounEdit

西 ‎(hiragana いり, romaji iri)

  1. the West

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

西 (tây, sài)

  • Sơn Tây 山西
  • Tây Sơn 西山
  • Sài Gòn 西貢
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
Read in another language