See also:
U+6CE2, 波
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CE2

[U+6CE1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CE3]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水木竹水 (EDHE), four-corner 34147, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: (ha)

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 617, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17308
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1012, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1597, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6CE2

Chinese edit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
水面波

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *paːl): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *bral).

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.

“wave; undulation”
Debated.
STEDT and Starostin derive it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r/m-ba (wave; ripple). Cognate with Tibetan རྦ (rba), དབའ (dba', wave).
Schuessler (2007) notes a mismatch of the vowels in the above comparanda, and instead posits a root *paj (“slanted; not level”), also subsuming (OC *pral, “slope; slanting”).
Wang (1982) relates it to (OC *paːls, “to winnow”), (OC *paːlʔ, *paːls, “to winnow”).

Pronunciation edit


Note: 4poq - only used in 寧波.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰo⁵⁵/
/po⁵⁵/
Harbin /pɤ⁴⁴/
/pʰɤ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /pʰo²¹/
Jinan /pə²¹³/
Qingdao /pə²¹³/
Zhengzhou /pʰo²⁴/
Xi'an /pʰo²¹/
Xining /pɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /puə⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pə³¹/
Ürümqi /pɤ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /po⁵⁵/
Chengdu /po⁵⁵/
Guiyang /po⁵⁵/
Kunming /po⁴⁴/
Nanjing /po³¹/
Hefei /pʊ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /pɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /pʰɔ¹³/
/pɔ¹³/
Hohhot /pɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /pu⁵³/
Suzhou /pu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /po³³/
Wenzhou /pu³³/
Hui Shexian /pɔ³¹/
Tunxi /po¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /po³³/
Xiangtan /po³³/
Gan Nanchang /po⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /po⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /po²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pɔ⁵³/
Nanning /pɔ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pɔ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /po⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pʰo⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pɔ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /po³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbo²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter pa
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/puɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/puɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/puɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pwa/
Li
Rong
/puɑ/
Wang
Li
/puɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/puɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bo1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pa ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁaj/
English wave (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9719
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paːl/

Definitions edit

  1. wave; breaker
  2. undulation
  3. (physics) wave
      ―  shēng  ―  sound wave
      ―  wēi  ―  microwave
  4. (Sichuanese, including Chongqing and Neijiang) elderly person
  5. Short for 波蘭波兰 (Bōlán, “Poland”).
  6. Short for 波斯 (Bōsī, “Persia”).
  7. a surname
  8. Used in 波羅波罗 (bōluó), alternative form of 菠蘿菠萝 (bōluó)
Synonyms edit
Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

simp. and trad.

Borrowed from English ball.

Pronunciation edit


Note: bo1 - in compounds.

Definitions edit

  1. (Cantonese, Leizhou Min, Hainanese) ball (Classifier: c;  c)
  2. (Cantonese) ball game, especially football (Classifier: c)
  3. (Cantonese) team in a ball game, especially football (Classifier: c)
  4. (Cantonese) goal (act of scoring with the ball) in a ball game, especially football (Classifier: c)
  5. (Cantonese) automotive gear, gearbox; transmission
    [Cantonese]  ―  dai1 bo1 [Jyutping]  ―  low gear
  6. (Hong Kong Cantonese) typhoon signal (issued by the Hong Kong Observatory)
    [Hong Kong Cantonese]  ―  baat3 hou6 bo1 [Jyutping]  ―  Typhoon Signal No. 8
  7. (chiefly Hong Kong Cantonese, figurative) boob; breast (Classifier: c;  c)
    冇腦冇脑 [Hong Kong Cantonese]  ―  bo1 daai6 mou5 nou5 [Jyutping]  ―  with big boobs but brainless
  8. (Hong Kong Cantonese) ball; dance party (Classifier: c)
  9. (Hong Kong Cantonese, figuratively, always with the classifier) responsibility (Classifier: c)
Synonyms edit
  • (ball):

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to winnow; to bump; to jerk; to jolt”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
なみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
(uncommon)
(rare)

⟨nami1/namʲi//nami/

From Old Japanese (nami1), from Proto-Japonic *nami.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(なみ) (nami

  1. a wave
    そのサーファーは一番(いちばん)(おお)きな(なみ)()った。
    Sono sāfā wa ichiban ōkina nami ni notta.
    That surfer rode the biggest wave.
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(なみ) (Nami

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

/pa//ɸa//ha/

From Middle Chinese (MC pa).

Affix edit

() (ha

  1. wave
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
irregular

Short form of ateji (当て字) spelling 波蘭 (Pōrando).

Proper noun edit

() (Po

  1. Short for ポーランド (Pōrando): Poland

References edit

  1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC pa). Recorded as Middle Korean (pha) (Yale: pha) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 물결 (mulgyeol pa))

  1. Hanja form? of (wave, undulation).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: Ba

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.