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U+88AB, 被
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88AB

[U+88AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88AC]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 145, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 中木竹水 (LDHE), four-corner 34247, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34222
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1580, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3085, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+88AB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pral, *prals
*pral, *prals
*pralʔ
*pralʔ
*pralʔ, *prals
*prals
*prals, *paːlʔ
*pʰral, *pʰralʔ
*pʰral
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral
*pʰral, *brals
*pʰral, *pʰrals
*pʰralʔ, *paːl
*bral
*bral
*bralʔ, *brals
*brals
*brals
*mbralʔ
*paːl
*paːl, *baːl
*paːl
*paːlʔ, *paːls
*paːlʔ, *pʰaːlʔ
*pʰaːl, *pʰaːlʔ, *pʰaːls
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːl
*pʰaːls
*baːl
*baːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bralʔ, *brals): semantic  (clothing) + phonetic  (OC *bral).

EtymologyEdit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “needs info on semantic development: "blanket" to passive”

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bedding; quilt; blanket (Classifier: c;  mn)
      ―  bèizi  ―  quilt
      ―  bèi  ―  bedding, bedclothes
    /   ―  diànbèi  ―  mattress
  2. to cover

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to suffer; to sustain (loss, misfortune, etc.)
  2. by
    蚊子  ―  bèi wénzi yǎo le.  ―  I got bitten by mosquitoes.
  3. Used before a verb to indicate passive voice, often with a negative connotation.
    /   ―  Wǒ de biǎo bèi tōu le.  ―  My watch has been stolen.
    我們汽車尾巴撞壞 [MSC, trad.]
    我们汽车尾巴撞坏 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen de qìchē wěiba bèi zhuànghuài le. [Pinyin]
    The rear end of our car was smashed.
  4. (neologism) passively
    自殺 / 自杀  ―  bèi zìshā  ―  to "be suicided"; to be killed by the authorities who then pass one's death off as suicide
    就業 / 就业  ―  bèi jiùyè  ―  to "be employed"; to falsify a graduate's employment status
  5. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit
  • In a passive-voice sentence, is placed after the subject and before the doer of the action. The doer of the action is placed before the verb or can be omitted.
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“by; passive marker”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing , ,
Taiwan , ,
Jinan ,
Xi'an
Wuhan 把得
Chengdu ,
Yangzhou ,
Hefei ,
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang ,
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong (Daling)
Qujiang
Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan ,
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen ,
Quanzhou ,
Zhangzhou ,
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Chaozhou ,
Shantou ,
Haikou
Leizhou
Wu Suzhou , 撥勒
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha , , ,
Shuangfeng

Pronunciation 3Edit



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phje ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-pʰ(r)aj/
English cover oneself with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to cover oneself”).

Pronunciation 4Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/bjeH/
Wang
Li
/bǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*brals/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (“wig”).
  2. Alternative form of (, “that”).

Pronunciation 5Edit



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰ(r)aj-s/
English cloak

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (pèi).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (bjeH, to cover), from the term's use in Chinese as a passive marker.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji hi-)

  1. -ed, -ee (marks the passive recipient of an action)
     ()傭者 (ようしゃ)
    hiyōsha
    employee
     ()験者 (けんしゃ)
    hikensha
    examinee
     ()減数 (げんすう)
    higensū
    minuend (number which is reduced)
     ()保護国 (ほごこく)
    hihogokoku
    protectorate (protected nation)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おおい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 被う (ōu, to cover).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana おおい, rōmaji ōi, historical hiragana おほい)

  1. a covering
  2. the act of covering something
  3. (by extension) a protector or patron

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(pi) (hangeul , revised pi, McCune–Reischauer p'i, Yale phi)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(bị, bệ, bỡ, bự, bợ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.