U+88AB, 被
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88AB

[U+88AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88AC]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 145, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 中木竹水 (LDHE), four-corner 34247, composition )

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1115, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34222
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1580, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3085, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+88AB

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *bralʔ, *brals) : semantic (clothing) + phonetic (OC *bral).

Etymology edit

Cognate with (OC *pʰral, *pʰralʔ). The meaning of passive marker is an extension of "to wear; to be covered by something".

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: vernacular reading.
Note:
  • phē/phěr/phōe/phēr/phě - vernacular;
  • pī/pǐ - literary.
Note: vernacular reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjeX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bei6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/
English coverlet

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. bedding; quilt; blanket (Classifier: m;  c;  mn)
      ―  bèizi  ―  quilt
      ―  bèi  ―  bedding, bedclothes
      ―  diànbèi  ―  mattress
Synonyms edit
  • (quilt):

Pronunciation 2 edit


Note:
  • bei4 - literary;
  • bei5 - vernacular.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (13)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter bjeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠiᴇH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚiɛH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biɛH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bjiə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /bjeH/
    Wang
    Li
    /bǐeH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱie̯H/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    bei6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bèi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjeH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
    English cover (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9715
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*brals/

    Definitions edit

    1. to cover
    2. to suffer; to sustain (loss, misfortune, etc.)
    3. by
      蚊子  ―  bèi wénzi yǎo le.  ―  I got bitten by mosquitoes.
    4. Used before a verb to indicate passive voice, often with a negative connotation.
        ―  Wǒ de biǎo bèi tōu le.  ―  My watch has been stolen.
      我們汽車尾巴撞壞 [MSC, trad.]
      我们汽车尾巴撞坏 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen de qìchē wěiba bèi zhuànghuài le. [Pinyin]
      The rear end of our car was smashed.
    5. (neologism) passively; under duress; in a forged manner; etc.
      自殺自杀  ―  bèi zìshā  ―  to "be suicided"; to be killed by the authorities who then pass one's death off as suicide
      就業就业  ―  bèi jiùyè  ―  to "be achieved employment"; to be falsely recorded as employed (for the purpose of falsifying employment data)
      吸菸吸烟  ―  bèi xīyān  ―  to smoke secondhand
      嫖娼  ―  bèi piáochāng  ―  to be falsely accused of visiting a prostitute
    6. a surname.
    Usage notes edit
    • In a passive-voice sentence, is placed after the subject and before the doer of the action. The doer of the action is placed before the verb or can be omitted.
    • As a neologism, by affixing to a verb or verb phrase that is rarely used in the passive sense (e.g. an intransitive verb), a deliberate awkwardness is constructed to call to the absurdity of the situation being referred to.
    Synonyms edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Vietnamese: bị ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: phải (must; correct; right side)

    Pronunciation 3 edit



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ phje ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-pʰ(r)aj/
    English cover oneself with

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions edit

    1. Alternative form of (to cover oneself; to scatter)

    Pronunciation 4 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (13)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter bjeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠiᴇH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚiɛH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biɛH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bjiə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /bjeH/
    Wang
    Li
    /bǐeH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱie̯H/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    bei6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9715
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*brals/

    Definitions edit

    1. Alternative form of (, wig)
    2. Alternative form of (, that)

    Pronunciation 5 edit



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 4/4
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ phjeH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pʰ(r)aj-s/
    English cloak

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions edit

    1. Alternative form of

    Compounds edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (bjeH, to cover), from the term's use in Chinese as a passive marker.

    Pronunciation edit

    Prefix edit

    () (hi-

    1. -ed, -ee (marks the passive recipient of an action)
      ()傭者(ようしゃ)
      hiyōsha
      employee
      ()験者(けんしゃ)
      hikensha
      examinee
      ()減数(げんすう)
      higensū
      minuend (number which is reduced)
      ()保護国(ほごこく)
      hihogokoku
      protectorate (protected nation)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    おおい
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 被う (ōu, to cover).[1][2]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (おおい) (ōiおほい,おほひ (ofoi, ofofi)?

    1. a covering
    2. the act of covering something
    3. (by extension) a protector or patron

    References edit

    1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (pi) (hangeul , revised pi, McCune–Reischauer p'i, Yale phi)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: bị, bệ, bỡ, bự, bợ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.