U+88AB, 被
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88AB

[U+88AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88AC]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 145, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 中木竹水 (LDHE), four-corner 34247, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34222
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1580, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3085, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+88AB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bralʔ, *brals): semantic  (clothing) + phonetic  (OC *bral).

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with (). The meaning of passive marker is an extension of "to wear; to be covered by something".

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bedding; quilt; blanket (Classifier: c;  mn)
      ―  bèizi  ―  quilt
      ―  bèi  ―  bedding, bedclothes
    /   ―  diànbèi  ―  mattress
  2. to cover

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to suffer; to sustain (loss, misfortune, etc.)
  2. by
    蚊子  ―  bèi wénzi yǎo le.  ―  I got bitten by mosquitoes.
  3. Used before a verb to indicate passive voice, often with a negative connotation.
    /   ―  Wǒ de biǎo bèi tōu le.  ―  My watch has been stolen.
    我們汽車尾巴撞壞 [MSC, trad.]
    我们汽车尾巴撞坏 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen de qìchē wěiba bèi zhuànghuài le. [Pinyin]
    The rear end of our car was smashed.
  4. (neologism) passively; under duress; in a forged manner; etc.
    自殺 / 自杀  ―  bèi zìshā  ―  to "be suicided"; to be killed by the authorities who then pass one's death off as suicide
    就業 / 就业  ―  bèi jiùyè  ―  to "be achieved employment"; to be falsely recorded as employed (for the purpose of falsifying employment data)
    吸菸 / 吸烟  ―  bèi xīyān  ―  to smoke secondhand
    嫖娼  ―  bèi piáochāng  ―  to be falsely accused of visiting a prostitute
  5. A surname​.
Usage notesEdit
  • In a passive-voice sentence, is placed after the subject and before the doer of the action. The doer of the action is placed before the verb or can be omitted.
  • As a neologism, by affixing to a verb or verb phrase that is rarely used in the passive sense (e.g. an intransitive verb), a deliberate awkwardness is constructed to call to the absurdity of the situation being referred to.
SynonymsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phje ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-pʰ(r)aj/
English cover oneself with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to cover oneself”).

Pronunciation 4Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/bjeH/
Wang
Li
/bǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*brals/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “wig”).
  2. Alternative form of (, “that”).

Pronunciation 5Edit



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰ(r)aj-s/
English cloak

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (pèi).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (bjeH, to cover), from the term's use in Chinese as a passive marker.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

() (hi-

  1. -ed, -ee (marks the passive recipient of an action)
    ()傭者(ようしゃ)
    hiyōsha
    employee
    ()験者(けんしゃ)
    hikensha
    examinee
    ()減数(げんすう)
    higensū
    minuend (number which is reduced)
    ()保護国(ほごこく)
    hihogokoku
    protectorate (protected nation)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おおい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 被う (ōu, to cover).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(おおい) (ōi (historical kana おほい)

  1. a covering
  2. the act of covering something
  3. (by extension) a protector or patron

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(pi) (hangeul , revised pi, McCune–Reischauer p'i, Yale phi)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(bị, bệ, bỡ, bự, bợ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.