See also: and
U+80F8, 胸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80F8

[U+80F7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80F9]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 130, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 月心山大 (BPUK), four-corner 77220, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 981, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29442
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1432, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2070, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80F8

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
   

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hiong - literary;
  • heng - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕyŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ɕyŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕyŋ²¹/
    Xining /ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /xỹn³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ɕioŋ³¹/
    Hefei /xiŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕioŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕioŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /ɕyɔ³³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /hiŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /heŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hioŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xioŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /huawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /xioŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭwoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi̯woŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiōng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13893
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰoŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. chest; thorax
    2. breast; bosom
    3. (figurative) mind; heart of hearts; thought

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. breast, chest
    2. heart, feeling, thought

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むな
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly the original form of mune below.[1]

    Cognate with (muna, main roofline, roof ridge), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

    Possibly also cognate with , (muna, emptiness, void), from the idea of cavity.

    Seldom used in isolation even in Old Japanese. Only found as the first element of compounds in modern Japanese.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (むな) (muna

    1. chest, breast
      • 711712, Kojiki (Kamitsumaki (“First Volume”))
        奴婆多麻能 久路岐美祁斯遠 / 麻都夫佐尓 登理與曾比 / 淤岐都登理 牟那美流登岐 / 波多多藝母 許禮婆布佐波受 / 幣都那美  曾迩奴岐宇弖
        ぬばたまの くろきみけしを / まつぶさに とりよそひ / おきつとり むなみるとき / はたたぎも これはふさはず / へつなみ そにだきうて
        nubatama no kuroki mikeshi o / matsubusa ni toriyosohi / oki tsu tori muna miru toki / hatatagi mo kore wa fusawazu / he tsu nami so ni dakiute
        I put on black iris-seed garments with schisandra, and though I fluff up my garments like when the ocean birds look at their chests, I say this is not good and I cast them off into the sea's waves...
    2. heart, inner thoughts
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むね
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Sound shift from muna above, from the fusion of muna with the emphatic nominal particle (i): /muna i//mune/, from Proto-Japonic *munay. Similar to the phonetic process observed in the shift from (kamu, spirit, god, older form used in compounds) to (kami, newer form, used as a standalone noun).

    Alternatively, may be a compound of (mu, body) +‎ (ne, root).[1]

    Cognate with (mune, main roofline, roof ridge) and , (mune, gist, main idea, primary part), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

    Notably, and also have an older reading muna that is only used in compounds (for , possibly only in place names). Meanwhile, (mune) appears later in the textual record (in the Uji Shūi Monogatari of the early 1200s), and this reading is used as a standalone noun rather than in compounds. This is consistent with other nouns that have paired vowel forms, and suggests that muna is probably the original form, and that the compound derivation is a folk etymology.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (むね) (mune

    1. chest, breast
    2. heart, inner thoughts
      (むね)(なか)(あつ)(おも)
      mune no naka no atsui omoi
      the passion in one's heart
    3. bosom, breasts
      彼女(かのじょ)はどんな(ふく)()ても(むね)目立(めだ)ちます。
      Kanojo wa donna fuku o kite mo mune ga medachimasu.
      No matter what clothes she wears, her chest always stands out.
    Derived termsEdit
    SynonymsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC hɨoŋ). Recorded as Middle Korean /휴ᇰ (Yale: hyung) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 가슴 (gaseum hyung))

    1. Hanja form? of (chest; box).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hung, hông)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.