(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)
From Old Japanese. Possibly the original form of mune below.
Cognate with 棟 (muna, “main roofline, roof ridge”), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.
Possibly also cognate with 空, 虚 (muna, “emptiness, void”), from the idea of cavity.
Seldom used in isolation even in Old Japanese. Only found as the first element of compounds in modern Japanese.
胸 (hiragana むな, rōmaji muna)
- chest, breast
- 711–712, Kojiki (Kamitsumaki (“First Volume”))
- 奴婆多麻能 久路岐美祁斯遠 / 麻都夫佐尓 登理與曾比 / 淤岐都登理 牟那美流登岐 / 波多多藝母 許禮婆布佐波受 / 幣都那美 曾迩奴岐宇弖
- ぬばたまの くろきみけしを / まつぶさに とりよそひ / おきつとり むなみるとき / はたたぎも これはふさはず / へつなみ そにだきうて
- nubatama no kuroki mikeshi o / matsubusa ni toriyosohi / oki tsu tori muna miru toki / hatatagi mo kore wa fusawazu / he tsu nami so ni dakiute
- I put on black iris-seed garments with schisandra, and though I fluff up my garments like when the ocean birds look at their chests, I say this is not good and I cast them off into the sea's waves...
- heart, inner thoughts
- 胸当て (munaate): a bib: a cloth covering the chest to protect from dirt or food
- 胸当て錐 (munaategiri): a breast drill, gimlet, or awl, with a flat end for pushing with the chest
- 胸板 (munaita): “chest board” → the flat area of the chest; a part of the breastplate in traditional Japanese armor
- 胸繋, 鞅 (munagai): part of riding tack, a cord or strap running around the chest and through the 四緒手 (shiode, “tie-downs”) on the front of the saddle
- 鞅 (munakaki): older form of munagai above
- 胸金物 (muna kanamono): metal fittings on the 胸板 (munaita, “breastplate”)
- 胸勘定 (muna kanjō): thinking in one's head to figure something out before doing it
- 胸糞 (muna kuso): “chest shit” → a bad feeling, a strong dislike
- 胸倉, 胸座 (munagura): the area where the collar of a kimono or other robe overlaps in front
- 胸苦しい (munagurushii): a feeling of uncomfortable pressure in the chest, as when anxious or distressed
- 胸黒 (munaguro): “black breast” → Pluvialis fulva, the Pacific golden plover
- 胸気 (munake): unpleasant and upsetting
- 胸毛 (munage): chest hair
- 胸先 (muna saki): the solar plexus, the area just below the sternum
- 胸騒ぎ (muna sawagi): “chest noise” → uneasiness, foreboding
- 胸算 (munazan): thinking in one's head to figure something out before doing it
- 胸算用 (munazan'yō): thinking in one's head to figure something out before doing it
- 胸簾 (muna sudare): “chest screen” → the ribs
- 胸底 (muna soko): the bottom of one's heart, one's innermost thoughts
- 胸高 (munadaka): tying one's 帯 (obi, “sash”) high on one's chest instead of at the waist
- 胸乳 (munachi): breast, boob
- 胸突き (munatsuki): a steep slope, as on a hill or mountain
- 胸突き八丁 (munatsuki hatchō): a very steep street or path; the last hard push before reaching a goal
- 胸尽くし (munazukushi): the bottom of the chest, the area just below the sternum
- 胸積り (munazumori): thinking in one's head to figure something out before doing it
- 胸づわらし (munazuwarashi): very sad or uneasy in a way that makes one's chest constrict
- 胸鬚 (muna hige): “chest beard” → chest hair
- 胸紐 (muna himo): a cord across the chest for holding a kimono or haori closed
- 胸鰭 (munabire): “chest fin” → pectoral fin
- 胸骨 (munabone): the breastbone, the sternum
- 胸元, 胸許 (munamoto): the chest; the area in front of the chest
- 胸焼け (munayake): heartburn (indigestion)
- 胸分く (munawaku): to push through bushes or scrub using one's chest, to bushwhack
- 胸分け (munawake): pushing through bushes or scrub using one's chest, bushwhacking; the breadth of the chest
Sound shift from muna above, from the fusion of muna with the emphatic nominal particle い (i): /muna i/ → /mune/, from Proto-Japonic *munay. Similar to the phonetic process observed in the shift from 神 (kamu, “spirit, god”, older form used in compounds) to 神 (kami, newer form, used as a standalone noun).
Alternatively, may be a compound of 身 (mu, “body”) + 根 (ne, “root”).
Cognate with 棟 (mune, “main roofline, roof ridge”) and 宗, 旨 (mune, “gist, main idea, primary part”), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.
Notably, 棟 and 宗 also have an older reading muna that is only used in compounds (for 宗, possibly only in place names). Meanwhile, 旨 (mune) appears later in the textual record (in the Uji Shūi Monogatari of the early 1200s), and this reading is used as a standalone noun rather than in compounds. This is consistent with other nouns that have paired vowel forms, and suggests that muna is probably the original form, and that the compound derivation is a folk etymology.
胸 (hiragana むね, rōmaji mune)
- chest, breast
- heart, inner thoughts
- mune no naka no atsui omoi
- the passion in one's heart
- bosom, breasts
- Kanojo wa donna fuku o kite mo mune ga medachimasu.
- No matter what clothes she wears, her chest always stands out.
- 胸が騒ぐ (mune ga sawagu): “one's chest is noisy” → to be unsettled, to be uneasy
- 胸を貸す (mune o kasu) “lend a chest” → a more powerful person partners with a less powerful person, such as for practicing
- 胸を借りる (mune o kariru) “borrow a chest” → a less powerful person partners with a more powerful person, such as for practicing
- 胸を撫で下ろす (mune o nadeorosu):