See also: and
U+5115, 儕
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5115

[U+5114]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5116]

Translingual

edit
Traditional
Shinjitai
(extended)
Simplified

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 9, +14, 16 strokes, cangjie input 人卜難 (OYX), four-corner 20223, composition )

References

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 119, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1227
  • Dae Jaweon: page 253, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 231, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+5115

Chinese

edit

Glyph origin

edit
Historical forms of the character


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *zriːl) : semantic + phonetic (OC *zliːl, *zliːls).

Etymology 1

edit
trad.
simp.

From (OC *zliːl, *zliːls).

Pronunciation

edit

Note: zai3 - due to confusion with .

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (20)
Final () (33)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter dzreaj
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʒˠɛi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖ͡ʐᵚæi/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʒɐi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖ͡ʐəɨj/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʒɛi/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʒɐi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɖ͡ʐʱăi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chái
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
caai4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chái
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzrɛj ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ˁ<r>əj/
English category, equals

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10029
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zriːl/

Definitions

edit

  1. fellows; associates; company; companion
  2. to make (two people) become a pair; to make people marry
  3. together; with each other

Compounds

edit

Etymology 2

edit
trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Possibly related to Proto-Tai *ʑaːjᴬ (man; male) (Luo and Deng, 1995; Li, 1997).

Pronunciation

edit

Definitions

edit

  1. (Hakka, Central Min, in compounds) person
  2. (Hakka) Classifier for people.
Synonyms
edit

Compounds

edit

Etymology 3

edit
For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“(Min) many”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

Etymology 4

edit
trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Likely a development from . The use of the glyph (chái) was first attested in writing in the Ming Dynasty, in The Mountain Songs (山歌) by Feng Menglong as a sound-borrowing.

Alternatively, Shen (2017) posits that this sense might be a grammaticalisation of Etymology 1.

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

  1. (Northern Wu) all; completely; each and every one out of a determinate quantity; always; under all circumstances
    勿怪浦東外灘 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    勿怪浦东外滩 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    8veq-kua 5phu-ton-lau 6nga-the 6ze 6lau 5tia-gheq [Wugniu]
    Be it Pudong or the Bund, they are both very pretty.

Synonyms

edit

Compounds

edit

Japanese

edit

Shinjitai
(extended)

Kyūjitai

Kanji

edit

(Hyōgai kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. fellow
  2. together

Readings

edit

Korean

edit

Hanja

edit

(eum (je))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Nôm readings: sài

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.