See also: , , , and
U+6B72, 歲
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B72

[U+6B71]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B73]
歲 U+2F8F3, 歲
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F8F3
㱎
[U+2F8F2]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 殟
[U+2F8F4]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 77, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 卜一戈竹竹 (YMIHH), four-corner 21253, composition𣥂)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 577, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16326
  • Dae Jaweon: page 967, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1443, character 20
  • Unihan data for U+6B72

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             
 
Uncommon instance of in the oracle bone script showing the two components.

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sqʰʷads, *sqʰʷad): semantic + phonetic (OC *ɢʷad). In addition to , various components such as (“moon; month”) used to be present, sometimes as simple as two dots. The current form derives from the Qin-style handwriting of the late Warring States (with a full-width on the top and a bottom-left stroke extending outward as in or instead of bending inward as in ), which was also inherited by the clerical script.

EtymologyEdit

A derivative of (OC *ɢʷad, “to pass over”) (Mei, 1979, 1992). Ultimately probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to travel; to go through); compare Tibetan སྐྱོད (skyod, to go) (Mei, 1979, 1992; Gong, 2002; STEDT).

The functions of the *s- prefix and the *-s suffix are not clear. Possible explanations include:

Alternatively, it may be derived from a word like (OC *ɢon, “round; circle”) (< Proto-Sino-Tibetan *wal (round; circular)), literally "to start the circle/cycle again" (Schuessler, 2007).

Outside of Sino-Tibetan, this word has been compared to Thai ขวบ (kùuap, year), which Bodman (1980) considers to be a loan from Chinese, as well as Proto-Austronesian *kawaS (year; season; sky) (Sagart, 2005).

Also see Schuessler (2007) and Smith (2012) for a discussion on the semantic development of this word, especially the connection between "Jupiter" and "year".

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Meixian:
    • sê4 - vernacular;
    • sui4 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • hṳe̿ - vernacular;
    • sṳ̿ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • huói - vernacular;
    • suói - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hè/hèr/hòe - vernacular;
    • sòe - literary.
    Note:
    • huê3 - vernacular;
    • suê3 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /suei⁵¹/
    Harbin /suei⁵³/
    Tianjin /suei⁵³/
    Jinan /suei²¹/
    Qingdao /sue⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /suei³¹²/
    Xi'an /suei²¹/
    Xining /suɨ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /suei¹³/
    Lanzhou /suei¹³/
    Ürümqi /suei²¹³/
    Wuhan /sei³⁵/
    Chengdu /suei¹³/
    Guiyang /suei²¹³/
    Kunming /sei²²/
    /suei²¹²/
    Nanjing /suəi⁴⁴/
    Hefei /se⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /suei⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /suei³⁵/
    Hohhot /suei⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /sø³⁵/
    Suzhou /se̞⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /sz̩ʷei⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /sz̩⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕye³²⁴/
    /ɕy³²⁴/
    Tunxi /se⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /sei⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /səi⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /sui⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sui⁵³/
    Taoyuan /se⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /søy³³/
    Nanning /ɬui³³/
    Hong Kong /søy³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sue²¹/
    /he²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huɔi²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ³³/
    /sy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sue²¹³/
    /hue²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sui³⁵/
    /hue³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (36)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siuᴇiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sʷiɛiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siuæiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /swiajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siuɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭwɛiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯wɛiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    suì
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    suì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sjwejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-qʷʰat-s/
    English year

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 12165 12175
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sqʰʷads/ /*sqʰʷad/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary) Jupiter (planet)
    2. year
    3. Tai Sui, the god representing each of these years
    4. (literary) age
    5. (literary) time; period
    6. (literary) crop harvests of the year
    7. Classifier for time: year
    8. Classifier for age (of a person or animal): year old
      現在 / 现在  ―  Nǐ xiànzài jǐ suì?  ―  How old are you now?
      十八 / 十八  ―  Wǒ shíbā suì.  ―  I am 18 years old.
      一個女孩 / 一个女孩  ―  yīge shí suì de nǚhái  ―  a ten-year-old girl

    Usage notesEdit

    Ages in are traditionally reckoned using the Chinese lunar calendar, considered as 1 year old at the moment of birth and increasing not during birthdays, but at the Chinese New Year.

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (さい) (sai)
    • Korean: (, se)
    • Vietnamese: tuế ()

    Others:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. Alternative form of - (さい) (sai, year (age counter))
    2. Alternative form of - (さい) (sai, year (age counter))

    ReadingsEdit

    • On (unclassified): せい (sei), さい (sai)
    • Kun: とし (toshi), よわい (yowai)

    Usage notesEdit

    This character lacks JIS support and is not used in Japan. The character (U+6B73) is used instead.


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC siuᴇiH). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: syey) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (hae se))

    1. Hanja form? of (age (counter); year (about age).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tuế, tuổi)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.