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See also:
U+93E1, 鏡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-93E1

[U+93E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+93E2]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 167, +11, 19 strokes, cangjie input 金卜廿山 (CYTU), four-corner 80116, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1320, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40812
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1820, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4250, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+93E1

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms ⿰钅井 second round simplified

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡaŋʔ
*kraŋʔ
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*kraŋs
*ɡraŋ
*qraŋʔ
*qraŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kraŋs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kraŋs).

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Various hypotheses exist:

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kèng - literary;
  • kiàⁿ - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jìng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jìng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjængH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qraŋʔ-s/
    English mirror

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6870
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kraŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. mirror; reflecting glass (Classifier: c)
    2. to mirror; to reflect
    3. to perceive; to observe clearly
    4. to use for reference; to draw lessons from
    5. clear
    6. (physics) lens; -scope
    7. spectacles; glasses
    8. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 鏡子 (“mirror”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 鏡子
    Mandarin Beijing 鏡子
    Taiwan 鏡子
    Harbin 鏡子
    Jinan 鏡子
    Muping 鏡子
    Luoyang 鏡子
    Wanrong 鏡子
    Xi'an 鏡兒
    Xining 鏡兒
    Yinchuan 鏡子
    Lanzhou 鏡子
    Ürümqi 鏡子
    Wuhan 鏡子
    Chengdu 鏡子
    Guiyang 鏡子
    Liuzhou 鏡子
    Yangzhou 鏡子
    Nanjing 鏡子
    Hefei 鏡子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Taishan
    Dongguan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang 鏡子
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 鏡子
    Hakka Meixian 鏡仔
    Yudu 鏡子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鏡仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 鏡仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 鏡仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 鏡仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 鏡兒, 鏡子
    Xinzhou 鏡兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 鏡子
    Suzhou 鏡子
    Hangzhou 鏡子
    Wenzhou , 玻璃鏡
    Chongming 鏡子
    Danyang 鏡子
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 鏡子
    Xiang Changsha 鏡子
    Shuangfeng 鏡子
    Loudi 鏡子
    Dialectal synonyms of 眼鏡 (“eyeglasses”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 靉靆, 眼鏡
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 眼鏡
    Mandarin Beijing 眼鏡兒
    Taiwan 眼鏡
    Tianjin 眼鏡兒
    Harbin 眼鏡兒, 鏡子
    Jinan 眼鏡子, 鏡子
    Muping 眼鏡
    Luoyang 眼鏡兒, 二餅兒 derogatory
    Wanrong 眼鏡, 鏡子 dated, 二柄子 derogatory
    Xi'an 眼鏡
    Zhengzhou 眼鏡
    Xining 眼鏡兒, 眼鏡兒子
    Xuzhou 二餅 humorous
    Yinchuan 眼鏡
    Lanzhou 眼鏡子, 鏡子, 二軲轆 humorous
    Ürümqi 眼鏡子, 鏡子
    Wuhan 眼鏡, 鏡子 dated, 玻璃 humorous
    Huanggang 眼鏡兒
    Chengdu 眼鏡兒, 眼鏡
    Guiyang 眼鏡
    Guilin 眼鏡
    Liuzhou 眼鏡
    Yangzhou 眼鏡子
    Nanjing 眼鏡, 二餅 humorous
    Malaysia 眼鏡
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 眼鏡子
    Cantonese Guangzhou 眼鏡
    Hong Kong 眼鏡
    Foshan 眼鏡
    Shunde 眼鏡
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 眼鏡
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 眼鏡
    Taishan 眼鏡
    Kaiping (Chikan) 眼鏡
    Dongguan 眼鏡, 二文錢 dated
    Shaoguan 眼鏡
    Yunfu 眼鏡
    Xinyi 眼鏡
    Lianjiang 眼鏡
    Nanning 眼鏡
    Wuzhou 眼鏡
    Yulin 眼鏡
    Hepu 眼鏡
    Gan Nanchang 眼鏡子
    Lichuan 眼鏡
    Pingxiang 眼鏡
    Hakka Meixian 目鏡, 眼鏡
    Luchuan 眼鏡
    Yudu 眼鏡
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 目鏡, 眼枷仔 dated, 眼枷 dated
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 目鏡, 眼鏡, 眼枷仔, 眼枷
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 目鏡
    Dongshi (Dabu) 目鏡
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 目鏡
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 目鏡
    Huizhou Jixi 眼鏡
    Jin Taiyuan 眼鏡
    Xinzhou 眼鏡, 二餅子 derogatory
    Hohhot 眼鏡兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou 眼鏡
    Songxi 眼鏡
    Jianyang 眼鏡
    Min Dong Fuzhou 眼鏡
    Fuqing 眼鏡
    Gutian 眼鏡
    Ningde 眼鏡
    Zhouning 眼鏡
    Fuding 眼鏡
    Matsu 眼鏡
    Min Nan Xiamen 目鏡
    Quanzhou 目鏡
    Zhangzhou 目鏡
    Taipei 目鏡
    Kaohsiung 目鏡
    Tainan 目鏡
    Taichung 目鏡
    Wuqi 目鏡
    Hsinchu 目鏡
    Taitung 目鏡
    Lukang 目鏡
    Yilan 目鏡
    Magong 目鏡
    Penang 目鏡
    Singapore 目鏡
    Philippines (Manila) 目鏡
    Pingnan 眼鏡
    Chaozhou 目鏡
    Shantou 目鏡
    Haifeng 目鏡
    Wenchang 目鏡
    Haikou 目鏡
    Leizhou 目鏡
    Puxian Min Putian 目鏡
    Xianyou 目鏡
    Pinghua Nanning 眼鏡, 眼枷
    Guilin 眼鏡子
    Wu Shanghai 眼鏡, 托力克
    Suzhou 眼鏡
    Hangzhou 眼鏡兒
    Wenzhou 眼鏡, 眼視鏡
    Chongming 眼鏡
    Danyang 眼鏡子
    Jinhua 眼鏡
    Ningbo 蔡眼
    Xiang Changsha 眼鏡
    Loudi 眼鏡
    Quanzhou 眼鏡

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かがみ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Originally a compound of (kaga, ancient combining form of (kage), “shadow; outline; figure; image) +‎ (mi, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る (miru), “to see, to look at).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かがみ, rōmaji kagami)

    1. a mirror (smooth reflecting surface)
      • 1999 March 6, “ミラージュ [Mirage]”, in Starter Boxスターターボックス, Konami:
         ()にする (かがみ)から (なか) () () ()すことのできる (とり)のけもの。
        Te ni suru kagami kara nakama o yobidasu koto no dekiru tori no kemono.
        An avian beast that can call upon its companions from inside the mirror in its hands.
      • 1999 July 22, “アブソリューター [Absolutor]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
         (あい) () (かがみ) (なか) () (かい) () ()むことができる。
        Aite o kagami no naka no sekai ni suikomu koto ga dekiru.
        It can suck opponents into the world inside the mirror.
    2. Short for 鏡餅 (kagami mochi): a set of mochi rice cakes used in New Year celebrations
    3. Short for 鏡物 (kagamimono): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    4. (theater) Short for 鏡板 (kagami ita): the panel at the back of a noh stage that is painted with an image of an old pine tree
    5. the barrelhead or lid of a sake barrel
      昨日 (きのう) (かがみ) ()いた。
      Kinō, kagami o nuita.
      They removed the barrelhead yesterday. → They opened the saké barrel yesterday.
    6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana かがみ, rōmaji Kagami)

    1. a placename
    2. a surname
    3. a female given name

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きょう
    Grade: 4
    goon

    /kjau//kjɔː//kjoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠiæŋH).

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana きょう, rōmaji kyō, historical hiragana きやう)

    1. mirror
    2. speculum
    3. pattern, model, example
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana きょう, rōmaji Kyō, historical hiragana きやう)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. mirror
    2. lens
    3. glass
    4. glasses

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana はがみ, romaji hagami)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (kagami, mirror).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はがみ, romaji hagami)

    1. a mirror

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (kagami, mirror).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かがん, romaji kagan)

    1. a mirror

    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Originally a compound of (kaga, combining form of (kage2), “shadow; outline; figure; image) +‎ (mi1, seeing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 見る (mi1ru), “to see, to look at).[1][2]

    NounEdit

    (kagami1) (kana かがみ)

    1. a mirror
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 90; also Man'yōshū, book 13, poem 3263)
        ...伊久比爾波加賀美袁加氣麻久比爾波麻多麻袁加氣...
        ...ikupi1 ni pa kagami1 wo kake2 ma-kupi1 ni pa ma-tama wo kake2...
        On the sacred stake a mirror is suspended; on the splendid stake splendid jewels are suspended.[3]
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3468),[4] text here
        夜麻杼里乃乎呂能波都乎爾可賀美可家刀奈布倍美許曾奈爾与曾利鷄米
        yamado2ri no2 woro2 no2 patuwo ni kagami1 kake1 to1nau be2mi1 ko2so2 na ni yo2serike1me2
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (kagami)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 80
    4. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (kính, gương)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (kagami, mirror).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かか゚ん, romaji kaŋan)

    1. a mirror