JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
おん
Grade: 1
goon
Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
いん
Grade: 1
kan’on

EtymologyEdit

(father) +‎ (sound). From the notion of a mothering vowel mating with a fathering consonant and giving birth to an onsetted mora, according to Meiji-era linguists, as in father /k/ + mother (/a/) = child (/ka/).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

()(いん) or ()(おん) (fuin or fuon

  1. (obsolete, phonetics, phonology) Synonym of 子音 (shiin, a consonant)
    Coordinate term: 母音 (boon)
    Holonym: 子音 (shion)
    • 1893 March, 大宮, 宗司, “第二章  母音 父音 子音 [Chapter 2: Mother Sounds, Father Sounds and Child Sounds]”, in 日本辭林 [A Japanese Dictionary], Tokyo: Hakubunkan, page 6:
      父音とは母音配合して子音つくる一種なりその隱微にしていまだ判然口外あらはれたるものあらずさればまたこれ標すべき文字あることなし假に片假字以て示すとき五十音の、ク、ス、ツ、ヌ、フ、ム、ユ、ル、ウ、の子音より、母音を引き去りたるのこれるもの、卽ちこれなり。
      Fuon to wa, boon to haigō shite, shion o tsukuru isshu no on nari. Sono on inbi ni shite, imada, hanzen to kōgai ni araware taru mono ni arazu. Sare ba, mata, kore o shirusu beki moji no aru koto nashi. Ima, kari ni, katakana o motte shimesu toki wa, gojūon no jiretsu no, ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru, u, kuko no shion yori, boon o hikisari taru ato ni nokoreru mono, sunawachi kore nari.
      Father sounds’ are a class of sounds that combines with mother sounds to make child sounds. They are obscure: there is no obvious way to enunciate them. As such, there are no letters for representing them either. Now, if we tentatively note them with katakana, using this column of the fifty sounds, ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru and u, they shall be just whatever is left after we take the mother sounds out of these nine child sounds.
    • 1897 March, “〇父音 [Father Sounds]”, in 日本文典 [A Japanese Grammar], 中等學科敎授法硏究會:
      母音配合して子音生ずる幽微なるを、父音といふ父音あらはすべき文字無けれ假に、クスツヌフムユル𛄢九字以てあつ父母音の配合して、子音を生ずる如し
      Boon to haigō shite, shion o shōzuru, iubi naru on o, FUON to iu. Fuon o arawasu beki, moji wa nakere do, kari ni, ku su tsu nu fu mu yu ru u no kuji to motte, kore ni atsu. Fubo ryōon no haigō shite, shion o shōzuru jō, hidari no gotoshi.
      Father sounds are subtle sounds that combine with mother sounds to bear child sounds. There are no letters for representing father sounds, so the nine letters ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru and u are tentatively used here. The ways father and mother sounds combine and bear child sounds are illustrated on the left.
    • 1897 November, Shioi, Ukō, “第二  子音 [Number 2: Child Sounds]”, in 中學日本文典 [A Middle-School Japanese Grammar], 六盟館, page 3:
      故に此の四十五音子音稱し、其のクスツヌフムユル𛄢如きを、父音稱す。此の父音極めて隱微なるものにて明に發するざれやゝこれ等たる故に、此の九の音の文字にて、これ示せるなり
      Yue ni, kono shijūgoon o, shion to shōshi, sono ku su tsu nu fu mu yu ru u no gotoki kuon o, fuon to shōsu. Kono fuon wa, kiwamete inbi naru mono ni te, saya ni koe ni hassuru nō wa zaredo, yaya, korera ni ni taru ni, kono kuko no on no moji ni te, kore o shimeseru nari.
      Thus, the forty-five sounds are called ‘child sounds’, and the nine sounds such as ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru and u are called ‘father sounds’. The father sounds are highly obscure, and even though they can be clearly uttered, they can only be approximated by these nine phonetic letters that sound close to them.
    • 1902, Hirano, Hidekichi, “第十四章  父音 [Chapter 14: Consonants]”, in 國語聲音學 [The Phonetics of the National Language], 國光社, page 75:
      父音、モルガニー以上卽ち或る局部に於ける摩擦密閉によりて生ずるものである母音特質として擧げたるもの知ら、母音ならざるものゝ特質推量せられるであらうとにかく父音母音との根本的區別に於て如く說くこと出來る。母音に於ては、口腔單に有聲の音を共鳴するので、有聲の音と云ふが母音の本質であるが、父音は口腔に於ける音の通路狹窄して摩擦音を生じたり、密閉して破裂して、一種破裂音を生じたりするので、口鼻腔內の調節其の要素で、聲門開閉どうでもよいので、時には開いの音たり、時には閉ぢの音たることが出來る。
      Fuon wa, Moruganī-tō ijō, sunawachi fukukanchū no aru kyokubu ni okeru, on no masatsu, mippei tō ni yorite shōzuru mono de aru. Mae ni boon no tokushitsu to shite age taru mono o shira ba, boon narazaru mono no tokushitsu mo suiryō serareru de arō ga, to ni kaku, fuon to boon to no konponteki kubetsu ni oite, shita no gotoku toku koto ga dekiru. Boon ni oite wa, kōkō wa tan ni yūsei no on o kyōmei suru no de, yūsei no on to iu ga boon no honshitsu de aru ga, fuon wa kōkōnai ni okeru on no tsūro o kyōsaku shite, masatsuon o shōji tari, mippei shite kore o haretsu shite, isshu no haretsuon o shōji tari suru no de, kōbikōnai no chōsetsu ga sono yōso de, seimon no kaihei wa dō de mo yoi no de, toki ni wa aite iki no on tari, toki ni wa tojite koe no on taru koto ga dekiru.
      Consonants are sounds generated due to friction, closure, etc., at specific places of articulation above the sinus of Morgagni in the vocal tract. The characteristics of vowels have been discussed earlier, so it should not be too difficult to infer the characteristics of non-vowels. As such, the fundamental distinction between consonants and vowels can be explained as follows. For vowels, the voiced sound merely resonates in the oral cavity, and that voiced sound is characteristic of vowels. Whereas for consonants, the path of the sound through the oral cavity may be constricted in the case of fricatives, or closed and followed by a burst in the case of plosives; there may also be modulation in the oral and nasal cavities, the opening and closing of the glottis may not be relevant, or an opening may result in airflow, or a closure may result in phonation.
    • 1905 June, 片岡, 黃山, “父音 [Father Sounds]”, in 黃山著作集, Saitama: Suharaya, page 14:
      ク、ス、ツ、ヌ、フ、ム、ユ、ル、ウ文字父音と云ふ
      Ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru, u no kumoji o, fuon to iu,
      The nine letters ku, su, tsu, nu, fu, mu, yu, ru and u are called ‘father sounds
    • 1912, 榊原, 淸, “⑶ 父音 [(3) Father Sounds]”, in 自習速記術 [Self-Taught Stenography], 以文館, page 13:
      ()(おん)()ものカサタナハマヤラ()()でありまし(おほ)きな(くわん)から()(しめ)()(しき)やうに()のであります
      Fuon to iu mono wa ka sa ta na ha ma ya ra no hachiji o iu no de arimashite, ōki na kan kara sa ni shimesu zushiki no yō ni toru no de arimasu.
      Father sounds’ are the eight letters ka, sa, ta, na, ha, ma, ya and ra, and they are written as shown in the diagram on the left page, around the big circle.