See also: and Z
U+4E59, 乙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E59

[U+4E58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5A]
U+2F04, ⼄
KANGXI RADICAL SECOND

[U+2F03]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F05]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 5, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 弓山 (NU), four-corner 17710)

  1. Kangxi radical #5, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 83, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 161
  • Dae Jaweon: page 167, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 47, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E59

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (49)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔjit̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔjĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/ĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔit ›
Old
Chinese
/*qrət/
English 2nd heavenly stem

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qriɡ/
Notes ɡd

DefinitionsEdit

  1. The second of the ten heavenly stems (天干 (tiāngān))
  2. second; 2; B; II; beta (used for unnamed people or objects, to enumerate headings in a list, for grades, etc.)
    路人路人  ―  lùrén jiǎ hé lùrén   ―  passerby A and passerby B
    法語成績 [MSC, trad.]
    法语成绩 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā fǎyǔ chéngjì dé le . [Pinyin]
    He got a B in French.
      ―  gān  ―  hepatitis B
  3. (chemistry) eth-; ethyl
      ―  wán  ―  ethane
  4. the seventh scale degree in Gongche musical notation (工尺譜工尺谱 (gōngchěpǔ))
  5. (literary, formal) one
    公文)……  ―  (gōngwén)...... Jiā fèn.  ―  (In official letters) …added one copy.
  6. A surname​.

Coordinate termsEdit

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

Originally from Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠiɪt̚), arising from the proper noun sense. Appears in texts from at least 833 CE.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

(おつ) (Otsu

  1. the second of the ten Celestial Stems

NounEdit

(おつ) (otsu

  1. something B
    1. the second item of any ordered list
    2. (music) one tone lower than the note indicated by (, something A)
    3. (by extension from the musical sense) a lower, sonorous and moving sound or tone
    4. (noh theater) in noh musical accompaniment, a specific kind of muffled drum beat played by striking the head of the taiko drum and keeping the mallet pressed against the head
  2. (Kansai dialect, slang) a stupid person, someone who is slow on the uptake
  3. (rare, possibly archaic) the state or circumstances of a thing
  4. (rare, possibly archaic) dressing up in an odd fashion

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

By extension from the moving tone noun sense. Appears in texts from the late Edo period, in the early 1800s.[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

(おつ) (otsu-na (adnominal (おつ) (otsu na), adverbial (おつ) (otsu ni))

  1. out of the ordinary, strange or unusual in an interesting or stylish way
  2. strange, odd, weird
    • :ja:東海道中膝栗毛 (Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, “Footing It along the Tokaido Road”, or “Shank's Mare”), serial published 1802-1814:
      ヲヤ()()さん、おつ()つきをしておめへ(なに)をする
      Oya Yaji-san, otsu na tetsuki o shite omē nani o suru
      Oy, Yaji, what do you think you're doing with your weird way of using your hands?
InflectionEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
on’yomi

Derived as aggressive clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu, used as a kind of greeting at work, literally that's honorable exhaustion (from hard work)). The use of for the spelling is an example of phonetic ateji (当て字).

PronunciationEdit

InterjectionEdit

(おつ) (otsu

  1. (Internet slang) Clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu).

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
きのと
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of (Ki, Wood, one of the Five Elements) +‎ (no, attributive marker) +‎ (oto, younger brother).

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(きのと) (Kinoto

  1. the second of the ten Heavenly Stems

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (sae eul))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


Middle KoreanEdit

ParticleEdit

(-ol)

  1. Idu script spelling of ᄋᆞᆯ (-ol, accusative case marker)
    • 1395, 高士褧 (Go Sa-gyeong), 大明律直解 (Daemyeongnyul Jikhae) [Correct Translation of the Great Ming Code]:
      本國背叛
      PWON.KWUK-ul POY.PAN
      Betray his native country

Old KoreanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (*-(u)r, *-hur)

PronunciationEdit

Generally believed to have been pronounced as *-r.

Old Korean (*-l) and (*-r) both merged unconditionally into *-l in Middle Korean, but the two phonograms were consistently distinguished in Old Korean until the late thirteenth century. Because Old Korean reconstructions are conventionally romanized using their Middle Korean reflex, the phonologically erroneous reconstruction *-l is often used as a shorthand.

Etymology 1Edit

From the Old Chinese pronunciation of the character, reconstructed as *qrət.

PhonogramEdit

(*-r)

  1. A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-r

Etymology 2Edit

ParticleEdit

(*-(u)r)

  1. Accusative case marker
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle Korean: ᄋᆞᆯ (-(o)l, accusative marker)
    • Korean: (-(eu)l, accusative case marker)

NotesEdit

In Middle and Modern Korean, the allomorph taken by the topic marker after a vowel may be (-reul) instead of (-l), especially in formal speech. This is the result of reduplication of the particle and is unlikely to have been present in Old Korean, although the phonologically opaque nature of the orthography makes it difficult to tell for sure.


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: ất, át, ắc, ắt, hắt, ặc, lớt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit