See also: , , Z, and
U+4E59, 乙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E59

[U+4E58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5A]
U+2F04, ⼄
KANGXI RADICAL SECOND

[U+2F03]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F05]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

Stroke order
 

(Kangxi radical 5, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 弓山 (NU), four-corner 17710)

  1. Kangxi radical #5, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 83, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 161
  • Dae Jaweon: page 167, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 47, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E59

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Unknown. Different ancient texts propose different origins.

  • Pictogram (象形) – a developing plant (Shuowen).
  • Pictogram (象形) – the intestine of a fish (Erya).
  • Pictogram (象形) – the gill bone of a fish (Liji Zhengyi (《禮記正義》)

The character should not be confused with 𠃉 > 鳦.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (49)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter 'it
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔjit̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔjĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/ĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jat1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔit ›
Old
Chinese
/*qrət/
English 2nd heavenly stem

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qriɡ/
Notes ɡd

Definitions edit

  1. The second of the ten heavenly stems (天干 (tiāngān))
  2. second; 2; B; II; beta (used for unnamed people or objects, to enumerate headings in a list, for grades, etc.)
    路人路人  ―  lùrén jiǎ hé lùrén   ―  passerby A and passerby B
    法語成績 [MSC, trad.]
    法语成绩 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā fǎyǔ chéngjì dé le . [Pinyin]
    He got a B in French.
      ―  gān  ―  hepatitis B
  3. (chemistry) eth-; ethyl
      ―  wán  ―  ethane
  4. (literary, formal) one
    公文)……  ―  (gōngwén)...... Jiā fèn.  ―  (In official letters) …added one copy.
  5. a surname
  6. (Cantonese) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}. (Classifier: c)

Coordinate terms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

  • Zhuang: iet

Etymology 2 edit

simp. and trad.

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (おつ) (otsu).

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. (ACG, sometimes sarcastic) thank you for the hard work in (doing something)
      ―  zìyǎn   ―  (sarcastically) thank you for your hard work in staging this "drama"

Etymology 3 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. (music) Kunqu gongche notation for the note ti (7).
    Synonym: 𢒼 () (Cantonese opera)
  2. (music) Cantonese opera gongche notation for the note low ti (7̣).
    Synonym: (Kunqu)

Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

From .

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. (Cantonese) Only used in 山雞乙山鸡乙. (a place in Hong Kong)

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
goon

Originally from Middle Chinese (MC 'it), arising from the proper noun sense. Appears in texts from at least 833 CE.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Proper noun edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

(おつ) (Otsu

  1. the second of the ten Celestial Stems

Noun edit

(おつ) (otsu

  1. something B
    1. the second item of any ordered list
    2. (music) one tone lower than the note indicated by (, something A)
    3. (by extension from the musical sense) a lower, sonorous and moving sound or tone
    4. (noh theater) in noh musical accompaniment, a specific kind of muffled drum beat played by striking the head of the taiko drum and keeping the mallet pressed against the head
  2. (Kansai dialect, slang) a stupid person, someone who is slow on the uptake
  3. (rare, possibly archaic) the state or circumstances of a thing
  4. (rare, possibly archaic) dressing up in an odd fashion

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
goon

By extension from the moving tone noun sense. Appears in texts from the late Edo period, in the early 1800s.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

(おつ) (otsu-na (adnominal (おつ) (otsu na), adverbial (おつ) (otsu ni))

  1. out of the ordinary, strange or unusual in an interesting or stylish way
  2. strange, odd, weird
    • :ja:東海道中膝栗毛 (Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, “Footing It along the Tokaido Road”, or “Shank's Mare”), serial published 1802-1814:
      ヲヤ()()さん、おつ()つきをしておめへ(なに)をする
      Oya Yaji-san, otsu na tetsuki o shite omē nani o suru
      Oy, Yaji, what do you think you're doing with your weird way of using your hands?
Inflection edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
おつ
Grade: S
goon
Alternative spelling
o2

Derived as aggressive clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu, used as a kind of greeting at work, literally that's honorable exhaustion (from hard work)). The use of for the spelling is an example of phonetic ateji (当て字).

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

(おつ) (otsu

  1. (Internet slang) Clipping of お疲れ様です (otsukaresama desu).
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
きのと
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of (Ki, Wood, one of the Five Elements) +‎ (no, attributive marker) +‎ (oto, younger brother).

Pronunciation edit

Proper noun edit

(きのと) (Kinoto

  1. the second of the ten heavenly stems

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
おと
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
 
(oto): the traditional Noh mask for the stock character of a plump, clumsy, but earnest young woman.

Cognate with the initial oto- in 劣る (otoru, to be less than; to be younger than), 落とす (otosu, to drop something).[3][1] Also the first element in (otōto, younger brother).

First attested in the Kojiki of 712.[4]

This is distinct from the initial oto- in 乙女(おとめ) (otome), which can instead be traced to an earlier woto- root, cognate with () (wotu).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(おと) (oto

  1. [from 712] (archaic) a younger sibling
    Antonym: (older sibling, archaic) (e)
    Hyponyms: (otōto, younger brother), (imōto, younger sister)
  2. [from late 1500s] (archaic) the youngest sibling
    Synonym: 乙子 (otogo)
  3. [from late 1500s] (archaic) clipping of 乙娘 (oto musume) a young woman
  4. [from late 1500s] (archaic, Noh theater) clipping of 乙御前 (oto goze): a stock character in 狂言 (kyōgen) comic interludes, played as a plump and clumsy but earnest young woman
    Synonyms: おたふく (otafuku), おかめ (okame)

Prefix edit

(おと) (oto-

  1. applied to a noun denoting a person, or to a person's name:
    1. next, younger, youngest
    2. beautiful, beloved, cute, dear

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  4. ^ 弟・乙”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (sae eul))

  1. bird

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Middle Korean edit

Particle edit

(-ol)

  1. Idu script spelling of ᄋᆞᆯ (-ol, accusative case marker)

Old Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From a Late Middle Chinese pronunciation of (MC 'it), which lenited coda /-t/ to /-r/.[1]

Phonogram edit

(*-r)

  1. A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-r
Usage notes edit

Generally believed to have been pronounced as *-r, based both on internal evidence and the Chinese etymon. Old Korean (*-l) and (*-r) both merged unconditionally into *-l in Middle Korean, but the two phonograms were consistently distinguished in Old Korean until the late thirteenth century. Because Old Korean reconstructions are conventionally romanized using their Middle Korean reflex, the phonologically erroneous reconstruction *-l is often used as a shorthand.

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (*-(u)r, *-hur)

Particle edit

(*-(u)r)

  1. Accusative case marker
Usage notes edit

In Middle and Modern Korean, the allomorph taken by the accusative marker after a vowel may be (-reul) instead of (-l), especially in formal speech. This is the result of reduplication of the particle and is unlikely to have been present in Old Korean, although the phonologically opaque nature of the orthography makes it difficult to tell for sure.

In "Middle Old Korean", the late first-millennium stage of Korean represented by about a dozen mostly eighth-century poems, the accusative particle was consistently written with the phonogram . has become dominant by the twelve poems of the tenth-century monk Gyunyeo, however, and is virtually not attested at all by the second millennium. There seems to be no semantic difference involved. Whether this represents a phonetic shift or simply a change in orthographic practice is unknown, although and had differing Middle Chinese initials.[2][3]

Descendants edit
  • Middle Korean: ᄋᆞᆯ/ (-(o/u)l, accusative marker)
    • Korean: (-eul, accusative case marker)

References edit

  1. ^ Alexander Vovin, Old Korean and Proto-Korean *r and *l revisited
  2. ^ 이승재 (Yi Seung-jae) (2000), “차자표기 자료의 격조사 연구 [A study of case markers in Sinographic sources]”, in Gugeo gungmunhak, volume 127, pages 107—132
  3. ^ 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop) (2008), “삼국유사와 균여전의 향찰 표기자 비교 [A comparison of the orthography of the hyangchal of the Samguk yusa and the Gyunyeo-jeon]”, in Gugeohak, volume 51, pages 279—311

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: ất, át, ắc, ắt, hắt, ặc, lớt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit