See also: bití, bíti, and bítì

Bikol Central edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: bi‧ti
  • IPA(key): /ˈbitiʔ/, [ˈbi.tiʔ]

Noun edit

biti

  1. (anatomy, usually of fish) A swim bladder of a fish.
  2. A swim bladder from the fish known as Abo or Tigertooth croaker, endemic in the San Miguel Bay in the Philippines.

Cebuano edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: bi‧ti

Verb edit

biti

  1. to snap; to fracture or break apart suddenly

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Participle edit

biti

  1. animate masculine plural passive participle of bít

Huba edit

Noun edit

biti

  1. water

References edit

  • Ayuba Y. Mshelia, The Story of the Origins of the Bura/Pabir People →ISBN, 2014)
  • Mohammed Aminu Mu'azu, A grammar of the Kilba language (2009) (as ɓìtì)

Icelandic edit

 
Icelandic Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia is

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse biti.

Noun edit

biti m (genitive singular bita, nominative plural bitar)

  1. piece
    Synonym: stykki
  2. mouthful, a morsel
    Synonym: munnbiti
  3. snack, bite, small meal
    Viltu fá þér bita?Wanna have a bite?
  4. crossbeam
    Synonym: þvertré
  5. (computing) bit, binary digit
Declension edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb edit

biti

  1. first-person singular past subjunctive of bíta
  2. third-person singular past subjunctive of bíta

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

biti

  1. plural of bito

Latvian edit

Noun edit

biti m

  1. nominative/vocative plural of bits

Noun edit

biti f

  1. accusative/instrumental singular of bite

Lindu edit

Noun edit

biti

  1. chisel

Lokono edit

Numeral edit

biti

  1. (Eastern Lokono) four.
    Synonym: bithi

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Participle edit

biti

  1. (non-standard since 2012) feminine singular of biten
  2. (non-standard since 2012) neuter singular of biten

Verb edit

biti

  1. (non-standard since 2012) supine of bite

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

biti n

  1. (non-standard since 2012) definite plural of bit

Old Norse edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Germanic *bitô, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to split, crack).

Noun edit

biti m (genitive bita)

  1. bit, mouthful, morsel
  2. eyetooth
  3. crossbeam
Declension edit
Descendants edit
  • Icelandic: biti
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: bete
  • Norwegian Bokmål: bete

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun edit

biti

  1. indefinite dative singular of bit

Verb edit

biti

  1. third-person singular/plural past subjunctive active of bíta

References edit

  • biti”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bū́ˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /bîti/
  • Hyphenation: bi‧ti

Verb edit

bȉti impf or pf (Cyrillic spelling би̏ти)

  1. (intransitive) to be, to exist
    Biti ili ne biti?To be or not to be?
  2. (transitive, copulative) Used to connect a noun to an adjective or passive past participle that describes it (equivalent to all English senses and functions as a copula; subject having the state, quality, identity, nature, role, etc., specified.)
    Vrijeme je lijepo, a ja sam sretan!The weather is nice and I am happy!
    • 1989, Đorđe Balašević (lyrics and music), “Devojka Sa Čardaš Nogama”, in Đorđe Balašević (lyrics), Tri posleratna druga[1], performed by Đorđe Balašević, Novi Sad: Jugoton:
      Rekoh joj "Beži, mani se,
      i traži bolje partije!
      Premala je moja tambura
      da te od kiše sakrije".
      I told her “Move on, let go of me,
      and look for a better catch
      My guitar is too small
      To hide you from the rain”.
  3. (transitive, auxiliary, regional) Used as an auxiliary verb in the present to form near future tense; similar to English going to.
    Nisam siguran, budemo vid(j)eli.I'm not sure, we'll see.
  4. (transitive, auxiliary) Used as an auxiliary verb to form compound verb tenses (perfect, pluperfect, future perfect, conditional) together with the active past participle.
    Kad si zadnji put bio tamo?When were you there the last time?
    Trčao sam.I ran. / I have run.
    Trčao bih.I would run.
    Bio bih trčao maraton da sam tada imao tenisice za trčanje.I would have run the marathon if I had had running shoes at the time.
  5. (transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the passive voice together with the passive past participle of the main verb.
    Ulovio sam loptu. Lopta je bila ulovljena.I caught the ball. The ball was caught. / The ball has been caught.
  6. (intransitive, interrogatively) Used to form a question, usually a polar one.
    Jesi li tu?Are you there?
  7. (intransitive, copulative, impersonal) Used to indicate a general condition, such as weather, worth or value.
    Pet jabuka jest dva eura.Five apples are two euro.
    Rekli su da će danas biti sunčano.They said that it's going to be sunny today.
  8. (transitive, copulative, mathematics) to equal, to total, to add up to (indicates the equivalence of values)
    Pet plus pet je deset.Five plus five is ten.
  9. (intransitive, impersonal, in the future tense) Used to express a premonition; there will be, there is going to be, to be coming
    Bit će / Biće rata.A war is coming.
Usage notes edit
  • 1st-person singular budem is perfective while 1st-person singular jesam is imperfective. jesam, jesi, jest(e), jesmo, jeste and jesu theoretically constitute a verb whose infinitive was lost before Proto-Slavic and all fell under the umbrella of the infinitive biti during Proto-Slavic. biti is thus simultaneously both imperfective and perfective and has therefore both a present (budući) and a past (bivši) verbal adverb.
Conjugation edit
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • Đuro Daničić, editor (1880-1882), “bȉti”, in Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika (in Serbo-Croatian), volume 1, Zagreb: JAZU, page 342

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *biti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bī́ˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyh₂-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /bîti/
  • Hyphenation: bi‧ti

Verb edit

bȉti impf (Cyrillic spelling би̏ти)

  1. (transitive) to beat, hit, strike
    Synonyms: tȗći, ùdarati
Conjugation edit
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • Đuro Daničić, editor (1880-1882), “bȉti”, in Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika (in Serbo-Croatian), volume 1, Zagreb: JAZU, page 338

Slovene edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /bìːti/
  • Hyphenation: bí‧ti

Verb edit

bíti impf

  1. (intransitive) to be, to exist
    Trgovina je za kavarno.The store is behind the cafe
  2. (transitive, copulative) Used to connect a noun to an adjective, noun or passive past participle that describes it (equivalent to all English senses and functions as a copula; subject having the state, quality, identity, nature, role, etc., specified.)
    On je moj prijatelj.He is my friend.
  3. (intransitive) there be
    Synonym: obstājati
    Bil je kralj, ki je vladal devetim deželam.
    There was a king which ruled over nine lands.
    Na sredi parcele je hiša.
    There is a house in the centre of the lot.
  4. (intransitive, impersonal) to be (see usage notes)
    Očitno je bilo, da ni imel pojma o tem, kar govori.
    It was clear that he had no idea about what he was telling.
  5. (elliptically) Taking the form of another part of a sentence:
    1. a binding participle
      • Saj boš en kozarček, ne?You will drink a glass [of a drink], right?
      Kaj bomo pa zdaj?What are we going to do now?
    2. a part of a subject
      Ta stol je iz lesa.This chair is made out of wood.
    3. (modal, impersonal, with infinitive) a modal verb or predicative denoting possibility or obligation; often translated as passive
      Žive duše ni bilo videtiThere was not a single person to be seen. (literally, “(One) could not see a single soul”)
    4. (in conditional mood, colloquial) verb imẹ́ti
      Jaz bi plišastega medvedka.I would like to have a teddy bear.
  6. (intransitive) to cost
    Torbica je bila sto evrov.The purse cost a hundered euros.
  7. (intransitive, expressive) to feel, to want[→SSKJ]
    Bilo mu je, da bi zavriskal.He wanted to shout out with joy.
  8. (intransitive, expressive, followed by da bi) to be worth
    • 2015 April 2, “Govor generalnega državnega tožilca na posvetu "Otrok in pasti sodobnega časa"”, in Državno tožilstvo republike Slovenije[2], retrieved 2023-02-07:
      O aktualnosti teme pa ni da bi govoril, saj je pravzaprav večna: ni bilo časa, ki s sabo ne bi prinašal, ob vseh drugih, tudi novih pasti, problemov in vprašanj.
      It is not worth talking about the topicality of this topic because it is actually timeless: there was not a time that would not bring, in addition to all other, also new traps, problems and questions.
  9. to hold, to be true, apply[→SSKJ]
    Zakon je za vse.Laws apply to everyone.
  10. (auxiliary, present forms) Used to form preterite tense.
  11. (auxiliary, present forms followed by l-participle) Used to form pluperfect tense.
  12. (auxiliary, future forms) Used to form future tense.
  13. (auxiliary, conditional form) Used to form present conditional mood.
  14. (auxiliary, conditional form followed by l-participle) Used to form preterite conditional mood.
  15. (auxiliary) Used to form passive voice.
Usage notes edit

This verb is very hard to translate in English as it can form many specific formations that are not present in English and often require complete restructuring of the sentence. Additionally, it also has many irregularities and additional forms regarding conjugation. Both of these are detailed here.

Impersonal be edit

Impersonal be can form many specific forms that often have to be translated together with the surrounding words, often changing the whole structure of a sentence:

  • Očitno je bilo, da ni imel pojma o tem, kar govori.It was clear that he had no idea about what he was telling.
  • Veliko kruha je še.There is a lot of bread (left)
  • Strah me je.I am scared.
  • Žal mi je bilo.I regretted it.

In the first example, also given in the definitions, there is no problem translating the verb as the impersonality can be represented by impersonal it. In the second example, the form there be can be used to convey the meaning. However, in the last two examples, translation is not that simple.

In the third example, word strah means "fear" (noun), me means "I" (accusative case) and je is the impersonal form of biti. Therefore, if one would literally translate this sentence, it would sound "Fear me is", which would not be understandable. In this case, the correct translation would be to convert "I" into the subject of the sentence, correctly conjugate the verb "be" and find a suitable adjective that would convey the same meaning, in this case "scared".

In the fourth example, žal means "unfortunately", mi means "I" (dative case), and je bilo is the preterite impersonal form biti. In this case, the verb has to be changed to the one that conveys the same meaning, and I has to be again converted into the subject.

These forms are not separate verbs as these forms are quite common and most of them are easily translatable (Bilo je mrzlo.It was cold.). This kind of untranslatable formations only appears in cases where dative or accusative are present and can in some cases also extend to the personal be, e.g. Same kosti so ga.He is skinny. (literally, “The bones are him.”), which is easier to understand, but still weird to say.

This problem is similar to that in German, e.g. with the word kalt.

Additional usage notes regarding conjugation edit

The verb has three additional forms that are not common for other verbs: future forms, negative present indicative forms and conditional forms.

The future forms bear no stress when the verb is used as an auxiliary verb and stressed when it is a full-lexical form of the verb. In common speech, however, it is common to also form the future tense as with any other verb, i.e. unstressed forms followed by l-participle (bom bil). This form is not considered to be correct by SP[→SP]. In some dialects, future forms also have its special negative form, naum/noum/nbom.

The conditional form is used only as an auxiliary verb, except in cases with ellipsis (sense 5). Even when one wants to form conditional of biti, l-participle has to be included (bi bil). The verb also has no distinction between present and past conditional; both use only one l-participle. It usually bears no stress, but in negative form, the stress can be transferred from ne (ne bȉ), however the more common form is as usual (nȅ bi).

Present forms are stressed as a full-lexical verb and unstressed as auxiliary verb.

All unstressed forms can also bear stress when they have the stress in the sentence.

Conjugation edit
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Slavic *biti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bī́ˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyh₂-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /bìːti/
  • Hyphenation: bí‧ti

Verb edit

bíti impf

  1. to beat (to hit, to strike)
    • 2019 February 25, “Žena je po nasvetu psihologa udarila svojega moža. Mož tepe svojo ženo, ali Pazite se sadista v hiši! Možni dejavniki tveganja za pojav agresije”, in Kormeshka[3], retrieved 2023-02-08:
      Če mož redno bije svojo ženo, potem morate najti način, kako ga ustaviti.
      If a man is regularly beating his wife, you have to find a way to stop him.
  2. to beat (to hit repeatedly, but not necessarily in rhythm)
    • 2023 February 8 (last accessed), “KAKO JESENI POLEPŠATI SVOJ DOM IN SE POČUTITI SREČNEGA”, in Planet design[4]:
      Dajmo torej nekaj predlogov, ki bodo hiši dali vitalnost , z majhnimi in velikimi okraski, ki lahko olepšajo in poskrbijo, da se počutimo vedno dejavne, tudi kadar zunaj dež bije po oknih.
      Let's therefore give some suggestions, which will give your house vitality, with small and big decorations, which can embellish and make sure that we feel active, even when the rain is beating on the windows.
  3. (usually reflexive) to fight
    • 2023, Ivica Flis Smaka, “Dodajmo kakovost življenju”, in (Please provide the book title or journal name)[5], retrieved 2023-02-08:
      In mi vsi nenehno bijemo bitko z zahrbtnim in neizprosnim sovražnikom, ki mu je ime staranje.
      And we all are constantly fighting a battle with a treacherous and unrelenting enemy, which is called ageing.
  4. to strike
    Ura je bila tri četrt.The clock was striking quarter to [some full hour].
  5. (impersonal) Used to tell time[→SSKJ]
    Osem je bilo.It was eight o'clock.
  6. (archaic) to play an instrument
    • 1863, Janez Leon, Levretanske pridige[6], Klagenfurt, page 20:
      In slišal sem glas od neba, kakor šum veliko vod, in kakor bobnenje velikega gromenja, in ta glas, katerega sem jaz slišal, je bil kakor citarjev, ki na svoje citre bijejo
      And I heard the voice from the sky, like the sound of many rivers, and like a grumble of a big thunder, and this voice, which I have heard before, was like that from men which play their zithers.
  7. (literary) to spread[→SSKJ]
  8. (reflexive) to contadict[→SSKJ]
  9. (rare, archaic) to drop, to fall
    • 1862, “Posnetek iz novih postav”, in Novice kmetijskin, rokodelnih in narodskih stvari, (20)‎[7], Ljubljana, page 434:
      Na kogar bíje sum, da je storil hudodelstvo, na ktero je postavljena petletna ali še daljša ječa, tacega je treba bilo po sedaj veljavnem redu kazenske pravde zaprtega preiskovati in izpraševati; po novi postavi pa sme viša sodna gosposka tudi temu dovoliti, da ostane na svobodi ali ne zaprt, ako varščino dá ali pa poroka postavi, kakor je bilo gori zapovedano
      Onto whom falls the suspicion that he had done an evil deed, for which the penalty is five or more years, they had to be under the currently standing crime law inspected and questioned locked up; the new law stipulates that the higher-ranked judge can allow them to stay free and not locked up as well if he puts up the bail or the jury's opinion is what is mentioned above.
Conjugation edit
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • biti”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • biti”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Turkish edit

Noun edit

biti

  1. accusative singular of bit
  2. third-person singular possessive of bit

Welsh edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

biti

  1. Alternative form of obeutu (about)

Adverb edit

biti

  1. Alternative form of obeutu (about)

See also edit

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

biti

  1. to bail water

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[8], Pacific linguistics