Translingual edit

Symbol edit

sam

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Samaritan Aramaic.

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Acronym

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Noun edit

sam

  1. surface-to-air missile

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English sammen, samnen, from Old English samnian, ġesamnian (to collect, assemble, bring together, gather, join, unite, compose, meet, glean), from Proto-West Germanic *samnōn, from Proto-Germanic *samnōną (to gather), from Proto-Indo-European *sem- (one). Cognate with Dutch zamelen (to collect), German sammeln (to collect, gather), Swedish samla (to gather, collect), Icelandic samna (to gather, collect). More at same.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sam (third-person singular simple present sams, present participle samming, simple past and past participle sammed)

  1. (transitive, UK dialectal) To assemble.
  2. (transitive, UK dialectal, of persons) To bring together; join (in marriage, friendship, love, etc.).
  3. (transitive, UK dialectal, of things) To bring together; collect; put in order; arrange.
  4. (intransitive, UK dialectal) To assemble; come together.
  5. (transitive, UK dialectal) To coagulate; curdle (milk).
Usage notes edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English sām (together), from Old English samen (together), from Proto-West Germanic *saman, from Proto-Germanic *samanai (together), from Proto-Indo-European *sem- (together, one).

Adverb edit

sam (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete) Together

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle English sam- (prefix), from Old English sam-, from Proto-Germanic *sēmi- (half), from Proto-Indo-European *sēmi- (half). Related to semi- (via Latin).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

sam (not comparable)

  1. (dialectal) Half or imperfectly done.
  2. (of food) Half-heated.
Related terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Possibly from Uncle Sam.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sam (plural sams)

  1. (slang) Federal narcotics agent.

Anagrams edit

Atong (India) edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bodo-Garo *sam¹ (grass). Related to Garo samsi, Garo sam.

Noun edit

sam (Bengali script সাম)

  1. grass; weed
  2. medicine
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

sam- (Bengali script সাম)

  1. to wait

Etymology 3 edit

Classifier edit

sam- (Bengali script সাম)

  1. used with any bilateral body part, hands, eyes, etc. and also tires

References edit

Charrua edit

Numeral edit

sam

  1. two

References edit

  • El último charrúa: de Salsipuedes a la actualidad (1996)
  • Idioma español y habla criolla: Charrúas y vilelas (1968)
  • Čestmír Loukotka, ‎Johannes Wilbert (editor), Classification of South American Indian Languages (1968, Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California), page(s) 62

Chuukese edit

Noun edit

sam

  1. father

Garo edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bodo-Garo *sam¹ (grass). Related to Atong (India) sam.

Noun edit

sam

  1. grass; herb
  2. medicine
  3. curry

Etymology 2 edit

Classifier edit

sam

  1. used with any bilateral body part, hands, eyes, etc.

Further reading edit

  • Burling, R. (2003) The Language of the Modhupur Mandi (Garo) Vol. II: The Lexicon[2], Bangladesh: University of Michigan, page 275

Lhao Vo edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum (three). Cognate with Lashi soem" and Burmese သုံး (sum:, three).

Numeral edit

sam

  1. three

References edit

  • Dr. Ola Hanson, A Dictionary of the Kachin Language (1906).

Macanese edit

Verb edit

sam

  1. Alternative form of sâm

Maltese edit

Root
s-w-m
3 terms

Etymology edit

From Arabicصامَ(ṣāma).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sam (imperfect jsum, active participle sajjem, verbal noun sawm)

  1. to fast

Conjugation edit

    Conjugation of sam
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
perfect m somt somt sam somna somtu samu
f samet
imperfect m nsum ssum jsum nsumu ssumu jsumu
f ssum
imperative sum sumu

Masurian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish sam.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈsam]
  • Syllabification: sam

Adjective edit

sam (not comparable)

  1. alone (oneself without company)
  2. alone (oneself without help)

Adverb edit

sam (not comparable)

  1. alone, by oneself, without company

Min Nan edit

For pronunciation and definitions of sam – see (“three; the other woman; the other man; etc.”).
(This term, sam, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of ).
For pronunciation and definitions of sam – see (“unlined garment; shirt; top; etc.”).
(This term, sam, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of ).
For pronunciation and definitions of sam – see .
(This term, sam, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of ).
For pronunciation and definitions of sam – see (“Three Stars mansion; etc.”).
(This term, sam, is the Pe̍h-ōe-jī form of ).

Mizo edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *sham, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(t)sam.

Noun edit

sam

  1. hair (of the head)
  2. antenna (of insects)

Etymology 2 edit

Adjective edit

sam

  1. easy, simple

Nga La edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *sham, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(t)sam.

Noun edit

sam

  1. hair (of the head)

References edit

  • Matu (Chin) Dictionary by Ropna Saruum, Matupi 2007

Old Irish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Celtic *samos (summer) (compare Welsh haf), from Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó- (compare Old English sumor, Old Armenian ամառն (amaṙn)).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sam m (genitive unattested, no plural)

  1. summer

Inflection edit

Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sam
Vocative saim
Accusative samN
Genitive saimL
Dative samL
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Synonyms edit

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
sam ṡam unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

Old Norse edit

Verb edit

sam

  1. second-person singular imperative of sama

Old Polish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *samъ. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /saːm/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /sɒm/

Pronoun edit

sam

  1. alone, by oneself, without company
  2. myself, yourself, himself, etc. (emphatic determiner, used similarly to "no other than" or "the very", as in "I myself")
  3. The meaning of this term is uncertain.
Descendants edit
  • Masurian: sam
  • Polish: sam
  • Silesian: sōm

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *sěmo. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

sam

  1. here; hither
Descendants edit

References edit

Phalura edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

sam (Perso-Arabic spellingسم⁩)

  1. equally

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[3], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Polish sam.

Adjective edit

sam (not generally comparable, comparative bardziej sam, superlative najbardziej sam, no derived adverb)

  1. alone (oneself without company)
  2. alone (oneself without help)

Adverb edit

sam (not generally comparable, comparative bardziej sam, superlative najbardziej sam)

  1. alone, by oneself, without company
    Synonyms: osobno, samodzielnie
  2. (Middle Polish) here (at this place)
    Synonyms: tu, tutaj

Particle edit

sam

  1. emphatic determiner, used similarly to "no other than" or "the very", as in "I myself"; oneself
    Przygotowując intrygę przeciwko szefowi, pani Magdalena kazała swojej córce ubrać się skromnie, a sama założyła sukienkę z głębokim dekoltem.
    Preparing the intrigue against the boss, Ms. Magdalena told her daughter to dress modestly, while she herself put on a dress with a deep neckline.
    Poszedł do samego końca.
    He went to the very end.
  2. by oneself, alone (by one's own volition or power, without outside help or encouragement)
Declension edit
Derived terms edit
adjectives
adverb
Related terms edit
adjectives
adverb
nouns
verbs

Etymology 2 edit

Clipping of sklep samoobsługowy.

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

sam m inan

  1. (colloquial) self-service shop
    Synonym: sklep samoobsługowy
Declension edit

Trivia edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), sam is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 159 times in scientific texts, 70 times in news, 120 times in essays, 231 times in fiction, and 302 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 882 times, making it the 48th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References edit

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “sam”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 2, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 518

Further reading edit

  • sam in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • sam in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • SAM_I”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 22.02.2023
  • SAM_II”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 22.02.2023
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “sam”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “sam”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “sam”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 11
  • sam in Narodowy Fotokorpus Języka Polskiego

Rohingya edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

sam (Hanifi spelling𐴏𐴝𐴔⁩)

  1. skin
    Synonym: samra

Romani edit

Verb edit

sam

  1. first-person plural present indicative of si

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *samъ, from Proto-Indo-European *somHós.

Adjective edit

sȃm (definite sȃmī, Cyrillic spelling са̑м)

  1. alone, sole
  2. unaided, single-handed
  3. absolute, very, mere, unmixed
  4. solitary, secluded
Declension edit
Alternative forms edit
  • sȃm

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *(j)esmь, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *esmi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi.

Verb edit

sȁm (Cyrillic spelling са̏м)

  1. first-person singular present tense enclitic form of biti.
    Tu sam. — I'm here.

Silesian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish sam.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈsam/
  • Rhymes: -am
  • Syllabification: sam

Pronoun edit

sam

  1. here
    Synonym: tukej
  2. hither

Further reading edit

  • sam in silling.org

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *samъ, from Proto-Indo-European *somHós.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

sȃm (not comparable)

  1. alone, sole
  2. unaided, single-handed, by oneself

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Hard
masculine feminine neuter
nom. sing. sám sáma sámo
singular
masculine feminine neuter
nominative sám ind
sámi def
sáma sámo
genitive sámega sáme sámega
dative sámemu sámi sámemu
accusative nominativeinan or
genitive
anim
sámo sámo
locative sámem sámi sámem
instrumental sámim sámo sámim
dual
masculine feminine neuter
nominative sáma sámi sámi
genitive sámih sámih sámih
dative sámima sámima sámima
accusative sáma sámi sámi
locative sámih sámih sámih
instrumental sámima sámima sámima
plural
masculine feminine neuter
nominative sámi sáme sáma
genitive sámih sámih sámih
dative sámim sámim sámim
accusative sáme sáme sáma
locative sámih sámih sámih
instrumental sámimi sámimi sámimi

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • sam”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • sam”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Swedish edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sam

  1. past indicative of simma

Anagrams edit

Vietnamese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

(classifier con) sam (, , 𧏰, 𧓰, 𪓫)

  1. a horseshoe crab
    đuôi sama horseshoe crab's tail; a braid/plait
See also edit
Derived terms

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

(classifier cây) sam ()

  1. common purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
    Synonym: rau sam

Ye'kwana edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Ideophone edit

sam

  1. zooming
  2. (of food) stinging, biting

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “samm”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 166

Zhuang edit

Zhuang cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal : sam

Etymology edit

From Proto-Tai *saːm (three), from Middle Chinese (MC sam, “three”). Cognate with Thai สาม (sǎam), Northern Thai ᩈᩣ᩠ᨾ, Lao ສາມ (sām), ᦉᦱᧄ (ṡaam), Tai Dam ꪎꪱꪣ, Shan သၢမ် (sǎam), Tai Nüa ᥔᥣᥛᥴ (sáam), Ahom 𑜏𑜪 (saṃ), Bouyei saaml.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sam (1957–1982 spelling sam)

  1. three