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U+4E38, 丸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E38

[U+4E37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E39]
丸 U+2F801, 丸
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F801
丽
[U+2F800]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 乁
[U+2F802]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 3, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大弓戈 (KNI), four-corner 50017, composition(GJKV) or ⿵(HT))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 80, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 94
  • Dae Jaweon: page 162, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 42, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+4E38

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠁽

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Shuowen suggests that it is an ideogram (指事) from (“to tilt”) flipped – something that can be tilted and turned; something round.

Unrelated to the right component of characters like and , which comes from .

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “any relation to 圓?”)

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • oân - literary;
  • îⁿ - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /uan³⁵/
    Harbin /uan²⁴/
    Tianjin /van⁴⁵/
    Jinan /vã⁴²/
    Qingdao /vã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /uan⁴²/
    Xi'an /uã²⁴/
    Xining /uã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /van⁵³/
    Lanzhou /vɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /van⁵¹/
    Wuhan /uan²¹³/ 藥~子
    /yɛn²¹³/ 肉~子
    Chengdu /uan³¹/
    Guiyang /uan²¹/
    Kunming /uã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /uaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ʊ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /væ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /uɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /væ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦuø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦuø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦuõ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /jy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /uɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /uːən⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /yẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /yɵn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ian¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒen¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyn³⁵/
    Nanning /yn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jyn³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /uan³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /uoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /yiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ĩ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (62)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦʷɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    wán wán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwan › ‹ hwan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷˁar/ /*ɦʷˁar/ (< *[ɢ]ʷˁar)
    English pellet; ball 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12608
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡʷaːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. small round object; ball
      1. pellet
      2. (traditional Chinese medicine) pill
    2. egg
    3. to roll into a ball
    4. Classifier for pills of Chinese medicine.
    5. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. circle
    2. round
    3. whole
    4. pill

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まる
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨maro2 → */marə//maru/

    Shift from Old Japanese (maro, see below).[1]

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (round object, soft-shell turtle, wholeness):

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji maru)

    1. any round object:
      1. a circle
      2. a sphere, ball
      3. (by extension) any non-perfectly round objects, such as an oval
      4. the "" symbol, equivalent to a check mark in some other languages
      5. (by extension) something correct, good, or right
    2. (colloquial) money
      Synonym: 金銭 (kinsen)
    3. enclosure inside a castle's walls
    4. (colloquial) the mark, or 句点 (kuten, full stop, period)
    5. (colloquial) the mark, or 半濁点 (handakuten, semi-voicing mark)
    6. the circular outline of a Japanese crest
    7. (Kansai) a soft-shell turtle
      Synonym: (suppon)
    8. term relating to completeness:
      1. fullness, wholeness
      2. meeting specific conditions
    9. a Japanese unit of weight
      1 maru is equal to 50 (kin), approximately 30 kilograms
    10. a Japanese unit of counting washi
    11. a day where prices are doubled in a red-light district

    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji maru-)

    1. whole, complete

    Derived termsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji -maru)

    1. suffix for ship names

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji Maru)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まる
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji -maru)

    1. Alternative spelling of 麻呂 (maru): attaches to names of persons or objects expressing dearness

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana まる, rōmaji maru)

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Alternative spelling of 麻呂 (maru): first-person singular, I, me

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まろ
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    ⟨maro2 → */marə//maro/

    From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form.

    AdjectiveEdit

    (-nari inflection, hiragana まろ, rōmaji maro)

    1. round
    2. plump and thick
    3. all, whole
      Synonym: 全部 (zenbu)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana まろ, rōmaji maro)

    1. a round object
    2. all, whole
    3. coins, money
      Synonym: (zeni)
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana まろ, rōmaji Maro)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がん
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /ɡwan//ɡan/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuɑn).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana がん, rōmaji gan, historical hiragana ぐわん)

    1. round; circular

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がん, rōmaji gan, historical hiragana ぐわん)

    1. a meatball, fishball
    2. a pill
      Synonym: 丸薬 (gan'yaku)

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana がん, rōmaji Gan, historical hiragana ぐわん)

    1. A surname​.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    • New Nelson: 34
    • Halpern: 3417
    • Halpern Learners: 2134
    • Heisig: 44
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 0a3.28
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (hwan)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: hwan, McCune–Reischauer: hwan)
      • Name (hangeul): 둥글 (revised: dunggeul, McCune–Reischauer: tunggǔl)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: hoàn, hòn, giúp, xắp, xóp

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit