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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 3, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大弓戈 (KNI), four-corner 50017, composition(GJKV) or ⿵(HT))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 80, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 94
  • Dae Jaweon: page 162, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 42, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+4E38

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠁽

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʷralʔ
*ɡʷaːn
*ɡʷaːn
*ɡʷaːn
*ɡʷaːn
*ɡʷaːns

Shuowen suggests that it is an ideogram (指事) from (“to tilt”) flipped – something that can be tilted and turned; something round.

Unrelated to the right component of characters like and , which comes from .

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /uan³⁵/
Harbin /uan²⁴/
Tianjin /van⁴⁵/
Jinan /vã⁴²/
Qingdao /vã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /uan⁴²/
Xi'an /uã²⁴/
Xining /uã²⁴/
Yinchuan /van⁵³/
Lanzhou /vɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /van⁵¹/
Wuhan /uan²¹³/ 藥~子
/yɛn²¹³/ 肉~子
Chengdu /uan³¹/
Guiyang /uan²¹/
Kunming /uã̠³¹/
Nanjing /uaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʊ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /væ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /uɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /væ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦuø²³/
Suzhou /ɦuø¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦuõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /jy³¹/
Hui Shexian /uɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /uːən⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /yẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /yɵn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jyn³⁵/
Nanning /yn²¹/
Hong Kong /jyn³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /uan³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /uoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /yiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ĩ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zuaŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (62)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwan/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑn/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wán wán
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwan › ‹ hwan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˤar/ /*ɦʷˤar/ (< *[ɢ]ʷˤar)
English pellet; ball 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12608
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷaːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. small round object
  2. pellet; pill
  3. (traditional Chinese medicine) pill
  4. Classifier for pills of Chinese medicine.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. circle
  2. round
  3. whole
  4. pill

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
まる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨maro2 → */marə//maru/

Shift from Old Japanese (maro, see below).[1]

Alternative formsEdit

  • (round object, soft-shell turtle, wholeness):

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji maru)

  1. any round object:
    1. a circle
    2. a sphere, ball
    3. (by extension) any non-perfectly round objects, such as an oval
    4. the "" symbol, equivalent to a check mark in some other languages
    5. (by extension) something correct, good, or right
  2. (colloquial) money
    Synonym: 金銭 (kinsen)
  3. enclosure inside a castle's walls
  4. (colloquial) the mark, or 句点 (kuten, full stop, period)
  5. (colloquial) the mark, or 半濁点 (handakuten, semi-voicing mark)
  6. the circular outline of a Japanese crest
  7. (Kansai) a soft-shell turtle
    Synonym: (suppon)
  8. term relating to completeness:
    1. fullness, wholeness
    2. meeting specific conditions
  9. a Japanese unit of weight
    1 maru is equal to 50 (kin), approximately 30 kilograms
  10. a Japanese unit of counting washi
  11. a day where prices are doubled in a red-light district

Derived termsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji maru-)

  1. whole, complete

Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji -maru)

  1. suffix for ship names

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji Maru)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
まる
Grade: 2
on’yomi

SuffixEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji -maru)

  1. Alternative spelling of 麻呂 (maru): attaches to names of persons or objects expressing dearness

PronounEdit

(hiragana まる, rōmaji maru)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) Alternative spelling of 麻呂 (maru): first-person singular, I, me

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
まろ
Grade: 2
on’yomi

⟨maro2 → */marə//maro/

From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form.

AdjectiveEdit

(-nari inflection, hiragana まろ, rōmaji maro)

  1. round
  2. plump and thick
  3. all, whole
    Synonym: 全部 (zenbu)

NounEdit

(hiragana まろ, rōmaji maro)

  1. a round object
  2. all, whole
  3. coins, money
    Synonym: (zeni)
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana まろ, rōmaji Maro)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
がん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/ɡwan//ɡan/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuɑn).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana がん, rōmaji gan, historical hiragana ぐわん)

  1. a meatball, fishball
  2. a pill
    Synonym: 丸薬 (gan'yaku)

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana がん, rōmaji Gan, historical hiragana ぐわん)

  1. A surname​.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • New Nelson: 34
  • Halpern: 3417
  • Halpern Learners: 2134
  • Heisig: 44
  • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 0a3.28
  1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hwan)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: hwan, McCune–Reischauer: hwan)
    • Name (hangeul): 둥글 (revised: dunggeul, McCune–Reischauer: tunggǔl)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hoàn, hòn, giúp, xắp, xóp)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit