U+8679, 虹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8679

[U+8678]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+867A]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

 
A rainbow.

(Kangxi radical 142, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中戈一 (LIM), four-corner 51110, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1076, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32830
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1545, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2834, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8679

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
   

Originally pictographic (象形) in the oracle bone script. The ancient Chinese regarded the rainbow as a two-headed creature.

In the seal script, it has become a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ) : semantic (insect; creature) + phonetic (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology edit

Probably non-Sino-Tibetan; compare Proto-Mien *kluŋᴬ (rainbow), Thai รุ้ง (rúng, rainbow), Zhuang duzdoengz (rainbow), saidoengz (rainbow) (Schuessler, 2007).

Benedict (1986) and Carr (1990) relate this to (OC *b·roŋ, *mroːŋ, “dragon”) and (OC *ɡoːŋ, “red”).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: jiàng, gàng - only used as a standalone word.
Note:
  • gang4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.
Note: gong3 - used in 天虹 (tin1 gong3).
Note: kuung3 - used in 水虹 (sui2 kuung3).
Note:
  • gong4 - vernacular;
  • fung4 - literary.
Note:
  • jion2 - vernacular;
  • hung1 - literary.
Note:
  • gô̤ng - vernacular;
  • ǒng - literary.
Note:
  • kê̤ṳng - vernacular;
  • hùng - literary.
Note:
  • khēng/khěng - vernacular;
  • hông - literary.
Note:
  • kêng6 - vernacular;
  • hong5 - literary.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: kiang6 / hong5
      • Sinological IPA: /kʰiaŋ³³/, /hɔŋ²²/
Note:
  • kiang6 - vernacular;
  • hong5 - literary.
Note:
  • gan4 - vernacular;
  • hong2 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 3/3
    Initial () (33) (28)
    Final () (1) (9)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I II
    Fanqie
    Baxter huwng kaewngH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/ /kˠʌŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/ /kᵚɔŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/ /kaɨwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/ /kɔŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng jiàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hung4 gong3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng jiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng › ‹ kæwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁoŋ/ /*kˁroŋ-s/
    English rainbow rainbow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3 1/3
    No. 4056 4004
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːŋ/ /*kroːŋs/

    Definitions edit

    1. rainbow; primary rainbow (Classifier: m c;  m)
        ―  cǎihóng  ―  rainbow
      天上  ―  Tiānshàng chū jiàng le.  ―  There's a rainbow in the sky.
    2. (literary, figurative) bridge
    Synonyms edit
    • (rainbow):
    See also edit

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit


    Definitions edit

    1. to fester
    2. Only used in 虹洞.

    Pronunciation 3 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter kuwngH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gòng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gung3
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 4032
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*koːŋs/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. (historical) A county in modern Anhui, China

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    にじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
     
    (niji): a rainbow.
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨nizi⟩/niʑi/

    From Old Japanese (nizi).[1]

    Also attested as man’yōgana form 爾自 in the 金光明最勝王経音義 (Konkōmyō Saishōō-kyō Ongi) of 1079. May be a shift from earlier ぬじ (nuji) or のじ (noji) readings.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (にじ) (niji

    1. a rainbow
      Synonym: 虹霓 (kōgei)
      春雨(はるさめ)がやんだ()(たん)に、(うつく)しい(にじ)(あらわ)れた。
      Harusame ga yanda totan ni, utsukushii niji ga arawareta.
      Just as the spring shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared.
      • 938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō, volume 1:
        虹 毛詩註云:「螮蝀虹也帝董、二音螮又作蝃。」[和名:爾之
          兼名苑云:「虹,一名。」五稽反、與鯢同、又五結倪擊二反。
          今按、雄曰虹、雌曰蜺也。
        Rainbow - according to the annotated Mao Commentary, a bridge becomes a rainbow by the Emperor’s command of two syllables: tei-tung or teitō. Japanese name, niji.
        According to the Jianming Yuan, is also written as (Chinese fanqie: 五稽), same [component] with ; five salamanders connect themselves by their ends (Chinese fanqie [of latter]: 擊二).
        Today, males call the rainbow while females .
    Derived terms edit
    Idioms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    のず
    Grade: S
    irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    のず
    [noun] : (dialectal, Yamagata) rainbow
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: S
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC huwng).

    Affix edit

    (こう) (

    1. rainbow
    2. rainbowlike
    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC huwng). Recorded as Middle Korean 호ᇰ (hwong) (Yale: hwong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 무지개 (mujigae hong))

    1. Hanja form? of (rainbow).
      Synonym: ( (ye))

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuwngH).

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 고을 이름 (go'eul ireum gong))

    1. Hanja form? of (a placename).

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぬーじ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *nozi.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぬーじ) (nūji

    1. a rainbow

    References edit

    1. ^ 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[1], 1963

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Japonic *nonsi. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Noun edit

    (nizi) (kana にじ)

    1. a rainbow
      Synonyms: ぬじ (nuzi), のじ (no₁zi)
      • 711–712, Kojiki, (Second scroll, Emperor Ōjin):
        ;[1] Kanenaga-bon glosses
        之邊、一賤女晝寢、於是日耀、指
        In the vicinity of the pond, the vulgar woman slept during the day, then on this day, like a shining rainbow, she fingered the upper vagina.

    Descendants edit

    • Japanese: (niji)

    References edit

    1. ^ 虹・霓”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: hồng[1]
    : Nôm readings: vồng[1]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit