See also: and
U+9F8D, 龍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F8D

[U+9F8C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9F8E]
U+2FD3, ⿓
KANGXI RADICAL DRAGON

[U+2FD2]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FD4]
U+F9C4, 龍
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9C4

[U+F9C3]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C5]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 212, +0, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜月卜尸心 (YBYSP), four-corner 01211, composition ⿰⿱)

  1. Kangxi radical #212, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №427

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 1536, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48818
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2076, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4803, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9F8D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               

Pictogram (象形) – originally a serpent with prominent whiskered mouth and eyes.

Current form developed in large seal script, with serpent’s body on right (tail at upper right, legs on right), whiskered/fanged mouth at lower left, and eyes/crown at upper left. Left side was subsequently simplified and abstracted, with some influence of and /. Note that existed as a traditional variant dating back to large seal script, and figures a dragon seen face-on, rather than curled around.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-bru(ŋ/k) (dragon; thunder). Cognate with Tibetan འབྲུག ('brug, dragon; thunder). The STEDT database also lists (OC *ɡ·ruːŋ, “thunder; sound of thunder”) and (OC *bruːɡ, “hail”) as cognates. Also compare (OC *brɯŋs, “sound of thunder”) and 霹靂 (OC *pʰeːɡ reːɡ, “thunder”).

This word is found in many languages of the region. Compare Proto-Hmong-Mien *-roŋ (dragon) (White Hmong zaj), Proto-Vietic *-roːŋ (dragon) (Vietnamese rồng), Vietnamese thuồng luồng (serpent-like monster), Khmer រោង (roong, year of the dragon), Thai มะโรง (má-roong, dragon; year of the dragon), Lao ມະໂລງ (ma lōng, year of the dragon), perhaps also Old Turkic [script needed] (*-lan, suffix denoting a wild, predatory animal) (Turkish aslan (lion), kaplan (tiger), yılan (snake)).

PronunciationEdit


Note: lung4-2 - "goal" and in 烏龍乌龙 (wu1 lung4-2).
Note:
  • lṳ̀ng - literary;
  • lèng - vernacular (only used in 龍眼);
  • liòng > lùng - literary (only used in 龍船).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lêng - vernacular;
    • gêng/liâng/ngúi - vernacular (only used in 龍眼);
    • liông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /luŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /luŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /luŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /luŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /ləŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /luŋ⁴²/
    /lyuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
    Xining /luə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /luŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
    Kunming /loŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /luəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /luŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /lũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /loŋ²³/
    Suzhou /loŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /loŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /liɛ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /nən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /liuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /lioŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /loŋ²¹/
    Nanning /luŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /luŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔŋ³⁵/
    /liŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /lœyŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /loŋ⁵⁵/
    /leŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /loŋ³¹/
    /liaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lioŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lioŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /luawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /lioŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭwoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯woŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljowng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[mə]-roŋ/
    English dragon

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 8436 8763
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*b·roŋ/ /*mroːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (mythology) Chinese dragon
    2. (mythology) Western dragon
    3. (figurative) emperor; sovereign; king; of the emperor
    4. (figurative) chief; hero; towering figure
    5. (by extension) dragon-shaped object; long object
    6. (by extension) dragon-adorned object
    7. (zoology, paleontology) extinct reptilian creature; -saur
      /   ―  kǒnglóng  ―  dinosaur
      翼手 / 翼手  ―  yìshǒulóng  ―  pterodactyl
    8. (Min Dong) to become clear-minded; to be revitalised
    9. (Cantonese, soccer and other sports) goal
    10. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (りゅう) (ryū)
    • Korean: > (, ryong>yong)
    • Vietnamese: long ()

    Others:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    • This kanji is the 旧字体 (kyūjitai) form of simplified , itself as isolated 新字体 (shinjitai) kanji, but is used in Jōyō characters and , with the latter categorized as Jōyō as of 2010.
    • Although it is officially simplified into , is often used instead for certain words for its aesthetics (such as in literary contexts or for spelling words borrowed from Chinese). For example, 烏龍茶 (ūroncha, oolong tea) is rarely spelled as 烏竜茶.

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    りゅう
    Jinmeiyō
    goon
    Alternative spelling

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɨoŋ).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    • Some dictionaries classify this reading as 慣用音 (kanyōon, literally commonly-accepted sound) instead of 呉音 (goon).

    NounEdit

    (りゅう) (ryū (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : |a Chinese dragon
    2. Kyūjitai form of : Synonym of ドラゴン (doragon): a Western dragon
    3. Kyūjitai form of : (shogi, colloquial) Short for 龍王 (ryūō): dragon king; a promoted 角行 (kakugyō, bishop) that has the moves of both kakugyō and 王将 (ōshō)/玉将 (gyokushō)
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with a Chinese dragon design
    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    (りゅう) (ryū (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : dragon
    2. Kyūjitai form of : hero
    3. Kyūjitai form of : imperial
    4. Kyūjitai form of : dinosaur
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (りゅう) (Ryū (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. (astronomy) Short for りゅう座 (Ryūza): the constellation Draco
    2. a male given name
    3. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    りょう
    Jinmeiyō
    kan’on
    Alternative spelling

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɨoŋ).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (りょう) (ryō (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : (rare or in Chinese contexts) a Chinese dragon

    AffixEdit

    (りょう) (ryō (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : dragon
    2. Kyūjitai form of : hero
    3. Kyūjitai form of : imperial
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    たつ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    ⟨tatu⟩/tat͡su/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (たつ) (tatsu (kyūjitai, shinjitai )

    1. Kyūjitai form of : (mythology) a Japanese dragon
      • 931938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō (book 19)
        龍 文字集略云:「龍(力鍾反。和名:太都)四足五采甚有神靈者也。」白虎通云:「鱗虫三百六十六而龍爲之長也。」
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɨoŋ). Recorded as Middle Korean 료ᇰ (Yale: lyong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (yong ryong), South Korea (yong yong))

    1. Hanja form? of / (dragon).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Possibly from the verb 立つ (tatu, to rise, stand).

    NounEdit

    (tatu) (kana たつ)

    1. a Japanese dragon

    Usage notesEdit

    Also used once phonetically as a 借訓 (shakkun) for ⟨tatu⟩.

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit


    Pai-langEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Coblin, reconstructing the Pai-lang pronunciation as *gljung, suggests that it derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, gorge) and retains its consonant cluster, which was lost in Proto-Lolo-Burmese. Compare Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Chinese (OC *kloːɡ).

    NounEdit

    (*gljung)

    1. gorge

    ReferencesEdit

    • W. South Coblin, "A New Study of the Pai-lang Songs" (1979), Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, 12:179–216
    • Christopher I. Beckwith, "The Pai-lang songs: The earliest texts in a Tibeto-Burman language and their Late Old Chinese transcriptions" (2008), in Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages III

    VietnameseEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: long (()(dung)(thiết))[2][3][4][1][5]
    : Nôm readings: long[2][3][1][6], lung[2][3][7], lỏng[7][5][6], lúng[7][1], luông[3], luồng[7]

    1. Hán tự form of long (dragon).
    1. A male given name

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit