See also: and
U+9F8D, 龍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F8D

[U+9F8C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9F8E]
U+2FD3, ⿓
KANGXI RADICAL DRAGON

[U+2FD2]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FD4]
U+F9C4, 龍
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9C4

[U+F9C3]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9C5]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 212, +0, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜月卜尸心 (YBYSP), four-corner 01211, composition 𦚏⿱⿺𠃑)

  1. Kangxi radical #212, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №427

Derived characters

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Further reading

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Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/龍部/龍部#龍|龍部/龍部]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1536, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48818
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2076, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4803, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9F8D

Bailang

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Etymology

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Coblin, reconstructing the Bailang pronunciation as *gljung, suggests that it derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, gorge) and retains its consonant cluster, which was lost in Proto-Lolo-Burmese. Compare Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Chinese (OC *kloːɡ).

Noun

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(*gljung)

  1. gorge

References

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  • W. South Coblin, "A New Study of the Pai-lang Songs" (1979), Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, 12:179–216
  • Christopher I. Beckwith, "The Pai-lang songs: The earliest texts in a Tibeto-Burman language and their Late Old Chinese transcriptions" (2008), in Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages III

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) – originally a serpent with prominent whiskered mouth and eyes.

Current form developed in large seal script, with serpent’s body on right (tail at upper right, legs on right), whiskered/fanged mouth at lower left, and eyes/crown at upper left. Left side was subsequently simplified and abstracted, with some influence of and /. Note that existed as a traditional variant dating back to large seal script, and figures a dragon seen face-on, rather than curled around.

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-bru(ŋ/k) (dragon; thunder). Cognate with Tibetan འབྲུག ('brug, dragon; thunder). The STEDT database also lists (OC *ɡ·ruːŋ, “thunder; sound of thunder”) and (OC *bruːɡ, “hail”) as cognates. Also compare (OC *brɯŋs, “sound of thunder”) and 霹靂 (OC *pʰeːɡ reːɡ, “thunder”).

This word is found in many languages of the region. Compare Proto-Hmong-Mien *-roŋ (dragon) (White Hmong zaj), Proto-Vietic *-roːŋ (dragon) (Vietnamese rồng), Vietnamese thuồng luồng (serpent-like monster), Khmer រោង (roong, year of the dragon), Thai มะโรง (má-roong, dragon; year of the dragon), Lao ມະໂລງ (ma lōng, year of the dragon), perhaps also Old Turkic [script needed] (*-lan, suffix denoting a wild, predatory animal) (Turkish aslan (lion), kaplan (tiger), yılan (snake)).

Pronunciation

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Note: lung4-2 - "goal" and in 烏龍 (wu1 lung4-2).
Note:
  • lṳ̀ng - literary;
  • lèng - vernacular (only used in 龍眼);
  • liòng > lùng - literary (only used in 龍船).
Note:
  • lêng - vernacular;
  • gêng/liâng/ngúi - vernacular (only used in 龍眼);
  • liông - literary.
Note:
  • liang5 - vernacular;
  • long5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /luŋ³⁵/
Harbin /luŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /luŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /luŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ləŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luŋ⁴²/
/lyuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
Xining /luə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /luŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
Kunming /loŋ³¹/
Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /luəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /luŋ¹³/
Hohhot /lũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /loŋ²³/
Suzhou /loŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /loŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /liɛ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /liuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /lioŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /loŋ²¹/
Nanning /luŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /luŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liɔŋ³⁵/
/liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /lyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /lœyŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /loŋ⁵⁵/
/leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /loŋ³¹/
/liaŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljowng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/lioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/luawŋ/
Li
Rong
/lioŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[mə]-roŋ/
English dragon

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 8436
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*b·roŋ/

Definitions

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  1. (mythology) Chinese dragon (Classifier: m c h;  mn)
  2. (mythology) Western dragon
  3. (figurative) emperor; sovereign; king; of the emperor
      ―  lóng  ―  imperial chair
  4. (figurative) chief; hero; towering figure
  5. (by extension) dragon-shaped object; long object
  6. (by extension) dragon-adorned object
  7. (zoology, paleontology) extinct reptilian creature; -saur
      ―  kǒnglóng  ―  dinosaur
    翼手翼手  ―  yìshǒulóng  ―  pterodactyl
  8. (Eastern Min) to become clear-minded; to be revitalised
  9. (Cantonese, soccer and other sports) goal (Classifier: c)
  10. (Cantonese, soccer and other sports) goalkeeper (Classifier: c)
  11. (figurative) queue; line (Classifier: c)
    排長排长 [Cantonese]  ―  paai4 coeng4 lung4 [Jyutping]  ―  to form a long queue
  12. (Hong Kong Cantonese, slang) money
  13. (Hong Kong Cantonese, slang) snake meat
  14. (Shanghainese, slang) a hundred of a currency designation
    Synonym:
  15. a surname
      ―  Lóng Yún  ―  Long Yun (Yunnan warlord)

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (りゅう) (ryū)
  • Korean: >(龍) (ryong>yong)
  • Vietnamese: long ()

Others:

See also

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

Readings

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Compounds

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Usage notes

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  • This kanji is the 旧字体 (kyūjitai) form of simplified , itself as isolated 新字体 (shinjitai) kanji, but is used in Jōyō characters and , with the latter categorized as Jōyō as of 2010.
  • Although it is officially simplified into , is often used instead for certain words for its aesthetics (such as in literary contexts or for spelling words borrowed from Chinese). For example, 烏龍茶 (ūroncha, oolong tea) is rarely spelled as 烏竜茶.

Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
りゅう
Jinmeiyō
goon
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC ljowng).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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  • Some dictionaries classify this reading as 慣用音 (kanyōon, literally commonly-accepted sound) instead of 呉音 (goon).

Noun

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(りゅう) (ryū

  1. Kyūjitai form of : a Chinese dragon
  2. Kyūjitai form of : Synonym of ドラゴン (doragon): a Western dragon
  3. Kyūjitai form of : (shogi, colloquial) Short for 龍王 (ryūō): dragon king; promoted rook
  4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with a Chinese dragon design
Derived terms
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Affix

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(りゅう) (ryū

  1. Kyūjitai form of : dragon
  2. Kyūjitai form of : hero
  3. Kyūjitai form of : imperial
  4. Kyūjitai form of : dinosaur
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(りゅう) (Ryū

  1. (astronomy) Short for りゅう座 (Ryūza): the constellation Draco
  2. a male given name
  3. a surname

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
りょう
Jinmeiyō
kan’on
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC ljowng).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(りょう) (ryō

  1. Kyūjitai form of : (rare or in Chinese contexts) a Chinese dragon

Affix

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(りょう) (ryō

  1. Kyūjitai form of : dragon
  2. Kyūjitai form of : hero
  3. Kyūjitai form of : imperial
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
たつ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

⟨tatu⟩/tat͡su/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(たつ) (tatsu

  1. Kyūjitai form of : (mythology) a Japanese dragon
    • 938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō, volume 19:
      龍 文字集略云:「龍(力鍾反。和名:太都)四足五采甚有神靈者也。」白虎通云:「鱗虫三百六十六而龍爲之長也。」
      Dragon The Abbreviated Character Collection says: [Dragon (Fanqie ryū. Japanese name: tatsu) having in excess of four limbs and five hues, it is a divine being] The Bai Hu Excerpts say: [With 366 scaled creatures, a dragon's advantage is length]
Derived terms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC ljowng). Recorded as Middle Korean 료ᇰ (lyong) (Yale: lyong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 미르 (mireu ryong), word-initial (South Korea) 미르 (mireu yong))

  1. Hanja form? of / (dragon).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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Possibly from the verb 立つ (tatu, to rise, stand).

Noun

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(tatu) (kana たつ)

  1. a Japanese dragon

Usage notes

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Also used once phonetically as a 借訓 (shakkun) for ⟨tatu⟩.

Derived terms

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Descendants

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Vietnamese

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Alternative forms

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: long (()(dung)(thiết))[2][3][4][1][5]
: Nôm readings: long[2][3][1][6], lung[2][3][7], lỏng[7][5][6], lúng[7][1], luông[3], luồng[7]

  1. Chữ Hán form of long (dragon).
  2. Chữ Hán form of Long (a male given name).

Compounds

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References

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