See also:
U+9019, 這
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9019

[U+9018]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+901A]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 162, +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 卜卜一口 (YYMR), four-corner 30306, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1258, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38889
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1743, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3844, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+9019

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋrans): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *ŋan).

The character was originally a verb meaning “to meet”, whose modern pronunciation is yàn. It was later borrowed for the proximal demonstrative “this/here”, by a confusion in medieval handwriting with (zhē, “this”).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
archaic
archaic
archaic
archaic
(liá; yá) Hakka
archaic
archaic
archaic
archaic
(liá; yá) Hakka
(liá; yá) Hakka
(chit) Hokkien

First attested in the Tang Dynasty; etymology unclear. Proposed etymologies:

  • From (OC *tjaːʔ, “one which”) (Lü, 1985). Wang (1990) notes that always occurs after what is referred to, where as always before.
    (OC *tjaːʔ, “one which”) > (MC t͡ɕiaX, “this (possessive case)”) > (MC t͡ɕiaX, “this (general demonstrative)”) > Mandarin (zhè).
  • From (OC *tjɯ, “this; it”) (Wang, 1990). Norman (1988) notes that this derivation would be phonologically problematic.

PronunciationEdit


Note: zhèi - colloquial contraction of (zhèyī), used when it is followed by classifier or numeral + classifier.
Note: ze3, ze5 - rare.
Note:
  • ché, zê3 - literary;
  • liá/yá, gê3/ê3 - may be etymologically unrelated to the Mandarin readings.
  • Jin
  • Note: zei3 - determiner (contraction of (zeh4 ieh4)).
    Note: literary.
    Note:
    • ché/chí/che - pronoun (chí usually written as ), may be etymologically unrelated to the Mandarin readings;
    • chit - determiner (contraction of ), may be etymologically unrelated to the Mandarin readings;
    • chiá - literary.
  • Wu
  • DefinitionsEdit

    1. this; these
      /   ―  Kàn zhè běn shū.  ―  Read this book.
      故事 / 故事  ―  Zhè shì yī ge lǎo gùshì.  ―  This is an old story.
    2. Synonym of 這樣这样 (zhèyàng, “like this; such”).
      不行 / 不行  ―  Zhè kě bùxíng!  ―  This is not okay!
    3. at this moment; right away; at once
      /   ―  zhè jiù qù.  ―  I'll go now.
    4. here
    5. filler particle usually used when the speaker is tongue-tied.
    6. meaningless particle in a sentence.
    SynonymsEdit
    AntonymsEdit
    • (, “that, those”)

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.

    Original meaning of this character. It is part of the (OC *ŋaŋ, *ŋraŋs, “to face, to meet”) word family; see there for more.

    PronunciationEdit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠiᴇnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚiɛnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiænH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋianH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋjɛnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭɛnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯ɛnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jin6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14270
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋrans/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to welcome; to greet; to receive

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. crawl, creep, grovel
    2. this

    ReadingsEdit

    As borrowing from Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠiᴇnH):

    • Go-on: げん (gen)
    • Kan-on: げん (gen)

    As borrowing from Mandarin (zhè):

    From native Japanese roots:

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese; compare Mandarin (zhè).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕʌ̹(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (i jeo))

    1. Hanja form? of (this; that). [affix]
    Usage notesEdit
    • The original meaning is "this". In certain words, it has been conflated with native Korean (jeo, that).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠiᴇnH).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ʌ̹(ː)n]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 맞을 (majeul eon))

    1. Hanja form? of (to greet). [only in Chinese]
    Usage notesEdit
    • Used only in the reading of Classical Chinese; no Korean word appears to use this hanja.

    Middle KoreanEdit

    Glyph originEdit

    Simplified from (edge), used as hungaja for similarly pronounced ᄀᆞᆺ〯 (kǒs, edge).

    NounEdit

    (kàs) (hangeul )

    1. Idu script spelling of (kàs, kind, variety)

    Usage notesEdit

    • Probably only found as reduplicated 這這, Idu spelling of the adverb 갓갓 (kàs-kàs, of each kind).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: giá, gió

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.