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See also:
U+8AB0, 誰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AB0

[U+8AAF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AB1]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 149, +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人土 (YROG), four-corner 00614, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1165, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35686
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1630, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3987, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8AB0

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*lus, *rulʔ, *luls
*tuːl
*tuːl
*tuːls
*tʰuːl, *tʰjul
*tʰuːl, *tʰjul
*duːlʔ
*duːl
*stuːlʔ
*zluːl, *sʰluːl
*ŋreːl, *rulʔ
*dul
*dul
*tjul
*tjul
*kljul
*tjul
*sɢʷinʔ, *tjul
*djul
*djul

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djul): semantic  (speak) + phonetic  (OC *tjul).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.

From *du + *-i (suffix in independent pronouns); cognate with (OC *du, “who”), (OC *djɯwɢ, “which one; who”) (Schuessler, 2007). In other Sino-Tibetan languages, compare Mizo (who; which), Chepang दोह्‌ (what), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuu (who; which (relativizer)) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sûi - literary;
  • chûi - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂei³⁵/
    /ʂuei³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂei²⁴/
    /ʂuei²⁴/
    Tianjin /sei⁴⁵/
    /suei⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʂe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Xi'an /sei²⁴/
    Xining /fɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂuei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /fei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /suei²¹³/
    Chengdu /suei³¹/
    Guiyang /suei²¹/
    Kunming /suei³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂuəi²⁴/
    Hefei /ʂue⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /sei¹¹/
    /suei¹¹/
    Pingyao /suei¹³/
    Hohhot /suei³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
    Suzhou /ze̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕye⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /ɕyei¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɕyəi¹²/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /sui¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /søy²¹/
    Nanning /sui²¹/
    Hong Kong /søy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sui³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoi⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sui⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdiaŋ³³/ 訓讀

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (16)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiuɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑʷi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑjuɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑwi/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑui/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑwi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑwi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shuí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzywij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]uj/
    English who

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17725
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djul/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. who; whom
    2. someone; anyone
    3. anyone; whoever
    4. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    variant forms

    Contraction of 啥人 (siáⁿ-lâng).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan) who; whom

    Etymology 3Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    variant forms 𪝊
    𫢗 Teochew

    Contraction of 底人 (tī-lâng).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Hokkien, including Xiamen, Kinmen, Magong, Singapore; Teochew; Hainanese) who; whom

    Etymology 4Edit

    trad.
    simp.

    Contraction of 是誰是谁 (chī-chūi).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan, chiefly Xiamen and Quanzhou) who; whom

    Etymology 5Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    variant forms (chiâ)
    (chôa)

    From shortening of 是誰是谁 (chī-choa̍h), from 是誰仔是谁仔 (chī-chūi-á).

    PronunciationEdit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan, including Zhangzhou and Taichung) who; whom

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“who; whom”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 1, , , 誰人, 何人
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 1
    Mandarin Beijing 1
    Taiwan 1
    Harbin 1
    Shenyang 1
    Jinan 1
    Muping 1
    Luoyang 1
    Wanrong 哪𠰻
    Wanrong (Ronghe) 啥外
    Xi'an 1
    Qingdao 1
    Zhengzhou 1
    Xining 阿個, 阿一個, 啥人
    Xuzhou 1, 哪個
    Yinchuan 1
    Lanzhou 1, 誰個, 誰們
    Ürümqi 1, 誰一個, 誰們
    Wuhan 哪個, 啥個
    Chengdu 哪個, 啥子人
    Guiyang 哪個
    Liuzhou 哪人, 哪個
    Kunming 哪個
    Yangzhou 哪個, 哪一個
    Nanjing 哪個
    Hefei 哪個, 哈個
    Nantong 哪個, 哪一個, 哪個人
    Cantonese Guangzhou 邊個, 乜誰
    Hong Kong 邊個, 乜誰
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 邊個, 哪誰
    Foshan 邊個
    Shunde 邊個, 邊誰
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 邊個
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 邊個, 乜誰
    Taishan 阿誰
    Kaiping (Chikan) 乜誰, 乜阿誰
    Dongguan 鼠個, 乜誰
    Shaoguan 邊個
    Yunfu 邊個
    Yangjiang 乜誰
    Xinyi 乜人, 乜誰
    Lianjiang 乜人
    Nanning 邊個
    Kuala Lumpur 邊個
    Gan Nanchang 哪個
    Lichuan 哪個
    Pingxiang 哪仔, 哪個仔
    Hakka Meixian 麼人, 哪儕
    Xingning 哪隻
    Huidong (Daling) 哪隻, 哪人
    Qujiang 哪個
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 哪儕
    Changting 哪個, 哪個哩
    Pingyu 麼人
    Wuping 哪個, 麼人
    Liancheng 哪個, 麼人
    Ninghua 台人
    Ruijin 哪人, 哪個
    Shicheng 斯你
    Shangyou 哪人
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 麼人, 麼儕
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 麼人, 麼儕
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 麼人, 麼儕
    Dongshi (Dabu) 麼人, 麼儕
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 麼人, 麼儕
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 麼儕
    Hong Kong 哪人
    Sabah 哪人
    Senai 麼人
    Singkawang 麼儕
    Huizhou Jixi 哪個
    Jin Taiyuan 1, 誰們 usually plural
    Xinzhou 1, 誰們 usually plural
    Min Bei Jian'ou 孰人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 底儂
    Fuqing 底儂
    Matsu 底儂
    Min Nan Xiamen 2, 3, 4, 是誰, 啥儂, 啥物儂, 什物儂, 底儂
    Quanzhou 2, 4, 是誰, 啥儂
    Zhangzhou 5, 是誰, 啥儂
    Taipei 啥物儂
    Kaohsiung 啥物儂
    Tainan 啥物儂
    Taichung 5, 啥儂
    Hsinchu 2, 啥物儂
    Lukang 啥物儂, 2
    Sanxia 啥儂
    Yilan 啥儂, 2
    Kinmen 3
    Magong 3
    Penang 誰誰, 誰誰儂, 是誰
    Singapore 啥儂, 2, 啥物儂, 是誰, 3
    Philippines (Manila) 誰仔, 啥儂
    Pingnan (Shangdu) 乜儂
    Chaozhou 底𫢗, 𫢗
    Shantou 底𫢗
    Haifeng 𫢗, 底𫢗
    Johor Bahru 底𫢗
    Haikou 3
    Leizhou 3, 誰儂
    Puxian Min Putian 什儂
    Xianyou 什儂
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 哪個
    Wu Shanghai 啥人
    Suzhou 啥人
    Hangzhou 哪個
    Wenzhou 何乜人, 乜人, 誰人, 何人
    Chongming 何人
    Danyang 哪個
    Jinhua 哪個
    Ningbo 啥人, 誰儂 dated
    Xiang Changsha 哪個, 何至個 suburbs
    Shuangfeng 哪個
    Loudi 哪個, 誰個
    Quanzhou 哪個

    See alsoEdit

    Question words


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. interrogative personal pronoun: who

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    だれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /tare//dare/

    From earlier tare.[1][2][3][4]

    The dare form appears from around the Edo period.[3] The voicing of the initial /t-/ to /d-/ is likely by analogy with other interrogative demonstratives 何れ (dore, which one), 何処 (doko, where).

    Now the primary form, replacing earlier tare.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana だれ, rōmaji dare)

    1. interrogative personal pronoun: who
       (だれ) (だれ) (つく)ったのか
      dare ga dare o tsukutta no ka
      Who made who?
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    たれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (712 CE) alongside its older form ta (see below).

    Derived from older (ta, who) + (re, thing, demonstrative nominalizer ending). Compare the formation of これ (kore, this) from (ko, this) + , (kare, that one, that person) from (ka, that) + (​re), etc.

    Superseded by dare above starting from around the Edo period.[2][3] The tare form does not appear to be used anymore outside of poetry or intentionally archaic text.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana たれ, rōmaji tare)

    1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun: who
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 15)
         () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
        大和 (やまと) (たか)佐士野 (さじの) (なな) ()媛女 (をとめ)ども (たれ)をし ()かむ [Modern spelling]
        Yamato no Takasajino o nana yuku otome-domo tare o shi makamu
        Of the seven maidens walking there in the field of Takasaji in Yamato, which will you choose to wed?[5]
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        この女、「かくのたまふは誰(たれ)ぞ」と問ふ。
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        大納言「悪しく探ればなき也」と腹立ちて、誰(たれ)ばかりおぼえんにとて、「吾上りて探らむ」とのたまふて[...]
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 614)[6]
        Tare. タレ () 誰. 例,Tarega maittaca. l, tareca maitta. (が参つたか. まはは, か参つた) 誰が来たか.Tare naritomo. (なりとも) 誰であろうとも.
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki, completed roughly 712 CE.[1]

    Appears to be the oldest form.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ta)

    1. (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 94)
         () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
         () (もろ) ()くや玉垣 (たまかき) () (あま) ()にかも ()らむ (かみ)宮人 (みやひと) [Modern spelling]
        mimoro ni tsuku ya tamakaki tsuki-amashi ta ni ka mo yoramu kami no miya-hito
        Round the sacred grove they've put a worship fence; too long she's worshipped―on whom now can she rely, the shrine maid of the god?[5]
    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 .1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    5. 5.0 5.1 Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN
    6. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (su) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (thùy)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.