See also:
U+8AB0, 誰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AB0

[U+8AAF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AB1]

Translingual edit

Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 149, +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人土 (YROG), four-corner 00614, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1165, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35686
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1630, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3987, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8AB0

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *djul) : semantic (speak) + phonetic (OC *tjul).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp.

From *du + *-i (suffix in independent pronouns); cognate with (OC *du, “who”), (OC *djɯwɢ, “which one; who”) (Schuessler, 2007). In other Sino-Tibetan languages, compare Mizo (who; which), Chepang दोह् (what), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuu (who; which (relativizer)) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • sûi - literary;
  • chûi - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂei³⁵/
/ʂuei³⁵/
Harbin /ʂei²⁴/
/ʂuei²⁴/
Tianjin /sei⁴⁵/
/suei⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂuei⁴²/
/ʂei⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂe⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂuei⁴²/
/ʂei⁴²/
Xi'an /sei²⁴/
Xining /fɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂuei⁵³/
Lanzhou /fei⁵³/
Ürümqi /sei⁵¹/
Wuhan /suei²¹³/
Chengdu /suei³¹/
Guiyang /suei²¹/
Kunming /suei³¹/
Nanjing /ʂuəi²⁴/
Hefei /ʂue⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sei¹¹/
/suei¹¹/
Pingyao /suei¹³/
Hohhot /suei³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
Suzhou /ze̞¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷei²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕye⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ɕyei¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕyəi¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /sui¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /søy²¹/
Nanning /sui²¹/
Hong Kong /søy²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sui³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /suoi⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /sy³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /sui⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔdiaŋ³³/ 訓讀

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (16)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzywij
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiuɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑʷi/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjuɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑwi/
Li
Rong
/ʑui/
Wang
Li
/ʑwi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑwi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chuí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
seoi4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shuí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzywij ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]uj/
English who

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17725
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djul/

Definitions edit

  1. who; whom
      ―  Tā shì shéi?  ―  Who is he?
    我們老師 [MSC, trad.]
    我们老师 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen de lǎoshī shì shéi? [Pinyin]
    Who is our teacher?
      ―  Shéi lái le?  ―  Who has come?
    我們遲到過失 [MSC, trad.]
    我们迟到过失 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen chídào shì shéi de guòshī? [Pinyin]
    Whose fault is it that we are late?
    他們邀請他们邀请  ―  Tāmen yāoqǐng shéi le?  ―  Whom did they invite?
  2. someone; anyone
    解開安全帶 [MSC, trad.]
    解开安全带 [MSC, simp.]
    Shéi néng bāng wǒ jiěkāi ānquándài? [Pinyin]
    Can someone help me to undo my seat belt?
    願意一起 [MSC, trad.]
    愿意一起 [MSC, simp.]
    Yǒu shéi yuànyì gēn wǒ yīqǐ qù ma? [Pinyin]
    Does anyone want to go with me?
  3. anyone; whoever
    英文 [MSC, trad.]
    英文 [MSC, simp.]
    Shéi xiǎng xué yīngwén, wǒ jiù jiāo tā. [Pinyin]
    I'll teach English to whoever wants to learn it.
  4. a surname

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Contraction of 啥人 (siáⁿ-lâng).

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Southern Min) who; whom

Etymology 3 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𪝊
𫢗 Teochew

Contraction of 底人 (tī-lâng).

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien, including Xiamen, Kinmen, Magong and Singapore Hokkien; Teochew; Hainanese) who; whom

Etymology 4 edit

trad.
simp.

Contraction of 是誰是谁 (chī-chūi).

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien, chiefly Xiamen and Quanzhou Hokkien) who; whom

Etymology 5 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms (chiâ)
(chôa)

From shortening of 是誰是谁 (chī-choa̍h), from 是誰仔是谁仔 (chī-chūi-á).

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien, including Zhangzhou and Taichung Hokkien) who; whom

Synonyms edit

See also edit

Question words

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
だれ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/tare//dare/

From earlier tare.[1][2][3][4]

The dare form appears from around the Edo period.[3] The voicing of the initial /t-/ to /d-/ is likely by analogy with other interrogative demonstratives 何れ (dore, which one), 何処 (doko, where).

Now the primary form, replacing earlier tare.

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Pronoun edit

(だれ) (dare

  1. interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
    (だれ)(だれ)(つく)ったのか
    dare ga dare o tsukutta no ka
    Who made who?
    • 2016, Makoto Shinkai, director, 君の名は。 [your name.], spoken by Taki Tachibana (Ryūnosuke Kamiki), Toho:
      お前は…だ?俺は どうしてここに来た?あいつに…あいつに会うために来た。助けるために来た。生きていてほしかった。だ?に会いに来た?大事な人、忘れたくない人、忘れちゃダメな人!だ?だ?だ…だ⁉名前は⁉
      O-mae wa… dare da? Ore wa dōshite koko ni kita? Aitsu ni… Aitsu ni au tame ni kita. Tasukeru tame ni kita. Ikite ite hoshikatta. Dare da? Dare da? Dare ni ai ni kita? Daiji na hito, wasuretakunai hito, wasurecha dame na hito! Dare da? Dare da? Dare da… Dare da⁉ Namae wa⁉
      Who… are you? Why did I come here? To see her… I came to see her. I came to save her. I wanted her to live. Who was it? Who? Who did I come to see? Someone dear to me, someone I don't wanna forget, someone I must not forget! Who was it? Who was it? Who was it… Who⁉ What's your name⁉
    • 2016, Makoto Shinkai, director, 君の名は。 [your name.], spoken by Mitsuha Miyamizu (Mone Kamishiraishi), Toho:
      ?あの人は?大事な人、忘れちゃダメな人、忘れたくなかった人!?君は?君の名前は⁉
      Dare? Dare? Ano hito wa dare? Daiji na hito, wasurecha dame na hito, wasuretakunakatta hito! Dare? Dare? Kimi wa dare? Kimi no namae wa⁉
      Who was it? Who? Who was he? Someone I hold dear, someone I must not forget, someone I did not want to forget! Who was he? Who? Who are you? What is your name⁉
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
たれ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (712 CE) alongside its older form ta (see below).

Derived from older (ta, who) + (re, thing, demonstrative nominalizer ending). Compare the formation of これ (kore, this) from (ko, this) + , (kare, that one, that person) from (ka, that) + (​re), etc.

Superseded by dare above starting from around the Edo period.[2][3] The tare form does not appear to be used anymore outside of poetry or intentionally archaic text.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

(たれ) (tare

  1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:誰.

Derived terms edit
Idioms edit
Proverbs edit
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki, completed roughly 712 CE.[1]

Appears to be the oldest form.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

() (ta

  1. (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:誰.

Derived terms edit
See also edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 .Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(su) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: thùy/thuỳ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.