See also:
U+8AB0, 誰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AB0

[U+8AAF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AB1]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 149, +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人土 (YROG), four-corner 00614, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1165, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35686
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1630, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3987, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8AB0

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djul): semantic (speak) + phonetic (OC *tjul).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.

From *du + *-i (suffix in independent pronouns); cognate with (OC *du, “who”), (OC *djɯwɢ, “which one; who”) (Schuessler, 2007). In other Sino-Tibetan languages, compare Mizo (who; which), Chepang दोह्‌ (what), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuu (who; which (relativizer)) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sûi - literary;
  • chûi - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂei³⁵/
    /ʂuei³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂei²⁴/
    /ʂuei²⁴/
    Tianjin /sei⁴⁵/
    /suei⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʂe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂuei⁴²/
    /ʂei⁴²/
    Xi'an /sei²⁴/
    Xining /fɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂuei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /fei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /suei²¹³/
    Chengdu /suei³¹/
    Guiyang /suei²¹/
    Kunming /suei³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂuəi²⁴/
    Hefei /ʂue⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /sei¹¹/
    /suei¹¹/
    Pingyao /suei¹³/
    Hohhot /suei³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
    Suzhou /ze̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zz̩ʷei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕye⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /ɕyei¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɕyəi¹²/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /sui¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /søy²¹/
    Nanning /sui²¹/
    Hong Kong /søy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sui³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoi⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sui⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdiaŋ³³/ 訓讀

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (16)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiuɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑʷi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑjuɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑwi/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑui/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑwi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑwi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuí
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    seoi4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shuí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzywij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]uj/
    English who

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17725
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djul/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. who; whom
      /   ―  Tā shì shéi?  ―  Who is he?
      我們老師 / 我们老师  ―  Wǒmen de lǎoshī shì shéi?  ―  Who is our teacher?
      /   ―  Shéi lái le?  ―  Who has come?
      我們遲到過失 [MSC, trad.]
      我们迟到过失 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen chídào shì shéi de guòshī? [Pinyin]
      Whose fault is it that we are late?
      他們邀請 / 他们邀请  ―  Tāmen yāoqǐng shéi le?  ―  Whom did they invite?
    2. someone; anyone
      解開安全帶 [MSC, trad.]
      解开安全带 [MSC, simp.]
      Shéi néng bāng wǒ jiěkāi ānquándài? [Pinyin]
      Can someone help me to undo my seat belt?
      願意一起 [MSC, trad.]
      愿意一起 [MSC, simp.]
      Yǒu shéi yuànyì gēn wǒ yīqǐ qù ma? [Pinyin]
      Does anyone want to go with me?
    3. anyone; whoever
      英文 [MSC, trad.]
      英文 [MSC, simp.]
      Shéi xiǎng xué yīngwén, wǒ jiù jiāo tā. [Pinyin]
      I'll teach English to whoever wants to learn it.
    4. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms

    Contraction of 啥人 (siáⁿ-lâng).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan) who; whom

    Etymology 3Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms 𪝊
    𫢗 Teochew

    Contraction of 底人 (tī-lâng).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Hokkien, including Xiamen, Kinmen, Magong, Singapore; Teochew; Hainanese) who; whom

    Etymology 4Edit

    trad.
    simp.

    Contraction of 是誰是谁 (chī-chūi).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan, chiefly Xiamen and Quanzhou) who; whom

    Etymology 5Edit

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms (chiâ)
    (chôa)

    From shortening of 是誰是谁 (chī-choa̍h), from 是誰仔是谁仔 (chī-chūi-á).

    PronunciationEdit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan, including Zhangzhou and Taichung) who; whom

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Question words


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    だれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /tare//dare/

    From earlier tare.[1][2][3][4]

    The dare form appears from around the Edo period.[3] The voicing of the initial /t-/ to /d-/ is likely by analogy with other interrogative demonstratives 何れ (dore, which one), 何処 (doko, where).

    Now the primary form, replacing earlier tare.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (だれ) (dare

    1. interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
      (だれ)(だれ)(つく)ったのか
      dare ga dare o tsukutta no ka
      Who made who?
      • 2016, Makoto Shinkai, director, 君の名は。 [your name.], Toho, spoken by Taki Tachibana (Ryūnosuke Kamiki):
        お前は…だ?俺は どうしてここに来た?あいつに…あいつに会うために来た。助けるために来た。生きていてほしかった。だ?に会いに来た?大事な人、忘れたくない人、忘れちゃダメな人!だ?だ?だ…だ⁉名前は⁉
        O-mae wa… dare da? Ore wa dōshite koko ni kita? Aitsu ni… Aitsu ni au tame ni kita. Tasukeru tame ni kita. Ikite ite hoshikatta. Dare da? Dare da? Dare ni ai ni kita? Daiji na hito, wasuretakunai hito, wasurecha dame na hito! Dare da? Dare da? Dare da… Dare da⁉ Namae wa⁉
        Who… are you? Why did I come here? To see her… I came to see her. I came to save her. I wanted her to live. Who was it? Who? Who did I come to see? Someone dear to me, someone I don't wanna forget, someone I must not forget! Who was it? Who was it? Who was it… Who⁉ What's your name⁉
      • 2016, Makoto Shinkai, director, 君の名は。 [your name.], Toho, spoken by Mitsuha Miyamizu (Mone Kamishiraishi):
        ?あの人は?大事な人、忘れちゃダメな人、忘れたくなかった人!?君は?君の名前は⁉
        Dare? Dare? Ano hito wa dare? Daiji na hito, wasurecha dame na hito, wasuretakunakatta hito! Dare? Dare? Kimi wa dare? Kimi no namae wa⁉
        Who was it? Who? Who was he? Someone I hold dear, someone I must not forget, someone I did not want to forget! Who was he? Who? Who are you? What is your name⁉
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    たれ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (712 C.E.) alongside its older form ta (see below).

    Derived from older (ta, who) + (re, thing, demonstrative nominalizer ending). Compare the formation of これ (kore, this) from (ko, this) + , (kare, that one, that person) from (ka, that) + (​re), etc.

    Superseded by dare above starting from around the Edo period.[2][3] The tare form does not appear to be used anymore outside of poetry or intentionally archaic text.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (たれ) (tare

    1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:誰.

    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki, completed roughly 712 C.E..[1]

    Appears to be the oldest form.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    () (ta

    1. (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:誰.

    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 .1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (su) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: thùy/thuỳ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.