English

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Etymology 1

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Noun

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nad

  1. (linguistics) noun animate dependent
See also
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Etymology 2

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Douglas Harper suggests an abbreviation of gonad originating among biology students.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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nad (plural nads)

  1. (slang, mostly plural) testicle
    • 2004, Bob Gunn, Sex, Ghosts and Gumshoes, page 119:
      I look down and the little one has already cut right through my ball sac and is in the process of slicing my left nad free.

Anagrams

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Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech nad, from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nad [+instrumental]

  1. over, above
    Antonym: pod

Further reading

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  • nad in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • nad in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Anagrams

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Estonian

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Etymology

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Clipping of nemad.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈnɑd̥/, [ˈnɑd̥]
  • Rhymes: -ɑd
  • Hyphenation: nad

Pronoun

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nad (genitive nende, partitive neid)

  1. short form of nemad: they

Declension

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Declension of the Estonian personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
long short long short long short long short long short long short
nominative mina ma sina sa tema ta meie me teie te nemad nad
genitive1 minu mu sinu su tema ta meie me teie te nende
partitive mind sind teda meid teid neid
illative minusse musse sinusse susse temasse tasse meisse teisse nendesse neisse
inessive minus mus sinus sus temas tas meis teis nendes neis
elative minust must sinust sust temast tast meist teist nendest neist
allative minule mulle sinule sulle temale talle meile teile nendele neile
adessive minul mul sinul sul temal tal meil teil nendel neil
ablative minult mult sinult sult temalt talt meilt teilt nendelt neilt
translative minuks sinuks temaks meieks meiks teieks teiks nendeks neiks
terminative minuni sinuni temani meieni teieni nendeni
essive minuna sinuna temana meiena teiena nendena
abessive minuta sinuta temata meieta teieta nendeta
comitative minuga muga sinuga suga temaga taga meiega teiega nendega
1) Also used possessively.
Forms in italics are nonstandard.

See also

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References

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  • nad in Sõnaveeb (Eesti Keele Instituut)
  • nad”, in [EKSS] Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Descriptive Dictionary of the Estonian Language] (in Estonian) (online version), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2009

Kashubian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈnat/
  • Rhymes: -at
  • Syllabification: nad

Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]

Further reading

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  • nad”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) “nad(e)”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[2]

Masurian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish nad.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈnat/
  • Rhymes: -at
  • Syllabification: nad

Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
  2. denotes motion; to above, to over [+accusative]
  3. denotes approximate location; near, close to [+instrumental]
  4. denotes movement towards; to [+accusative]
  5. denotes object over which one has power, care, or over which one has an advantage; over [+instrumental]
  6. denotes higher position in a hierarchy; over [+instrumental]
  7. denotes object of action, typically of emotions, i.e. crying; over [+instrumental]
  8. denotes cause of an emotion; over; because of [+instrumental]
  9. with a reduplicated noun, expresses superlative nature; the greatest of all, of [+instrumental]
  10. denotes a proximate time of day; close to [+instrumental]
  11. denotes object drawing someone's attention or action; over [+instrumental]
  12. denotes an amount higher than another; above, over, more than [+accusative]

Further reading

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  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2024) “nad”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur[3], volume 4, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, pages 224-226

Middle English

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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not +‎ had

Contraction

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nad

  1. had not

Descendants

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  • Yola: nad

References

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Old Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nad

  1. Denotes movement; to over, to above [+accusative]
  2. Denotes movement; to under, to below [+accusative]
  3. Denotes subject of an attack etc.. [+accusative]
  4. Denotes a higher position in comparisons; above [+accusative]
  5. Denotes larger amount; above, more than [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  6. Denotes first degree of comparisons; more than [+accusative] or [+instrumental]
  7. With a reduplicated noun, expresses superlative nature; of [+accusative]
  8. Denotes additionality or excess; in addition to [+accusative]
  9. Denotes a manner contrary to something else. [+accusative]
  10. Denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
  11. Denotes position in a hierarchy; above, over [+instrumental]
  12. Denotes vessel through which divine action is taken; through [+instrumental]
  13. Denotes target of an action aimed at [+instrumental]
  14. Denotes subject of power; over, above [+instrumental]
  15. Denotes subject of emotion; over [+instrumental]
  16. Denotes contradiction; despite [+instrumental]

Descendants

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References

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Old Irish

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Particle

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nad

  1. Alternative spelling of nád

Old Polish

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
  2. denotes location; near, close to [+instrumental]
  3. denotes time; just before [+instrumental]
  4. denotes cause; because of [+instrumental]
  5. denotes position in comparison; over, more than [+instrumental] or [+accusative]
  6. with a reduplicated noun, expresses superlative nature; of [+instrumental]
  7. denotes subject of power; above [+instrumental]
  8. denotes subject of someones thoughts or actions in relation to, vis-a-vis [+instrumental]
  9. denotes motion; to above, to over [+accusative]

Derived terms

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prefix

Descendants

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References

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Polish

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish nad.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
    Synonyms: ponad, powyżej
    Coordinate terms: pod, popod
    Nad biurkiem wisi piękny obraz.Above the desk hangs a beautiful painting.
  2. denotes location, particularly in relation to a body of water; on, by [+instrumental]
    Mieszkają w dużym domu nad morzem.They live in a big house by the sea.
    Opole leży nad Odrą.Opole lies on the Oder.
  3. denotes motion; to above, to over [+accusative]
    Synonyms: ponad, powyżej
    Coordinate terms: pod, popod
    Podnieś ręce nad głowę!Put your hands above your head!
  4. denotes movement, particularly in relation to a body of water; to [+accusative]
    Antonym: znad
    W niedzielę jedziemy nad jezioro.We're going to the lake on Sunday.
  5. (literary) denotes position in comparison; than; over [+accusative]
  6. over (indicates relative status, authority or power) [+instrumental]
    Antonym: pod
    Nauczyciel umiejętnie panuje nad klasą.The teacher skillfully keeps control over the class.
  7. (literary) denotes highest degree of intensity of an action or state;
    Synonym: ponad
    Kocham to nad życie.I love it to death/more than life itself/more than anything in the world.
  8. denotes subject of activities; on [+instrumental]
    Pracuję nad scenariuszem do nowego filmu.I'm working on a script for a new film.
  9. with a reduplicated noun, expresses superlative nature; the greatest of all, of [+instrumental] or (stylized) [+accusative]
    Oj, marzy mi się pizza nad pizzami!Oh, I dream of the greatest of all pizzas!
    Zawisza Czarny, rycerz nad rycerzami, zginął po wzięciu do tureckiej niewoli.Zawisza Czarny, a knight of the knights, was killed after being captured by the Turks.

Derived terms

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prefix

Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), nad is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 91 times in scientific texts, 107 times in news, 101 times in essays, 127 times in fiction, and 72 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 498 times, making it the 90th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References

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  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “nad”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 263

Further reading

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  • nad in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • nad in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “nad, nade”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • NAD”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 2008 December 17
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “nad”, in Słownik języka polskiego[4]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “nad”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[5]
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1904), “nad”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 3, Warsaw, page 28

Scottish Gaelic

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Etymology

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Univerbation of an (in) +‎ do (thy)

Preposition

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nad (+ dative, triggers lenition)

  1. in thy; in your (singular)

Inflection

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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ. Compare na (on, onto), nad-, nat-.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nȁd (Cyrillic spelling на̏д)

  1. over, above (with no change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ) [+instrumental]
    Synonym: ȉznad
    Antonym: pȍd
    nad stolomover the table
    vlast nad nekimpower over somebody
    heroj nad herojimathe greatest of all heroes
  2. over, above (usually with change of position, answering the question kùda) [+accusative]
    Synonym: ȉznad
    Antonym: pȍd
    Nagnuo se nad vodu.He leaned over the water.

References

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  • nad” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Silesian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈnat/
  • Rhymes: -at
  • Syllabification: nad

Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
    Synonyms: pōnad, powyżyj
    Coordinate term: pod
  2. denotes movement; to above, to over [+accusative]
    Synonyms: pōnad, powyżyj
    Coordinate term: pod
  3. denotes position close to water; by [+instrumental]
    Synonym: kole
  4. denotes movement close to water; to [+accusative]
  5. denotes object of certain actions. [+instrumental]
  6. denotes proximity of a time; around [+instrumental]
  7. denotes object most affceted by something. [+accusative]
  8. with a reduplicated noun, expresses superlative nature; of [+instrumental]

Further reading

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  • nad in silling.org

Slovene

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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nad

  1. over, above (stationary) [+instrumental]
  2. over, above (motion towards) [+accusative]

Slovincian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *nadъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈnat/
  • Rhymes: -at
  • Syllabification: nad

Preposition

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nad

  1. denotes motion; to above, to over [+accusative]
  2. denotes movement, particularly in relation to a body of water; to [+accusative]
  3. denotes location; above, over [+instrumental]
  4. denotes location, particularly in relation to a body of water; on, by [+instrumental]
  5. denotes extension past something; above, beyond [+instrumental]
  6. over (indicates relative status, authority or power) [+instrumental]

Derived terms

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prefixes

Further reading

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Welsh

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Etymology

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From na with the same meaning, perhaps with addition of yd (affirmative particle).[1]

Pronunciation

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Conjunction

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nad

  1. (formal) thatnot (introduces a negative noun clause, marking it for emphasis)
    Mae e’n dweud nad athro yw ef.
    He says that he is not a teacher.
  2. thatnot (introduces a negative noun clause, used before a vowel)
    Mae e’n dweud nad ydy e’n mynd.
    He says that he is not going.

See also

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  • mai (affirmative, emphasis)
  • taw (affirmative, emphasis)
  • na (negative, unmarked, used before a consonant)

Mutation

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Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
nad unchanged unchanged unchanged

References

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  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “nad”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yola

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Etymology

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From Middle English nad; equivalent to nat +‎ had.

Pronunciation

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Contraction

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nad

  1. had not
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 58:
      Nad Ich.
      Had I (not?).

References

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  • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828) William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867, page 58