English

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Alternative forms

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Etymology 1

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From Middle English tunne, tonne (cask, barrel), from Old English tunne (tun, cask, barrel), from Proto-Germanic *tunnǭ, *tunnō (tun, barrel, cask), from Latin tunna, probably of Gaulish origin.

Cognate with North Frisian tenn (tun, barrel, cask), Dutch ton (tun, barrel, cask), German Tonne (tun, barrel, drum), Danish tønde (barrel), Swedish tunna (barrel, cask, tun), Icelandic tunna (barrel). Compare also Old French tonne, French tonneau (ton, barrel), Medieval Latin tunna (cask), Middle Irish tunna (cask), Welsh tynell (tun, barrel). It is uncertain whether the Germanic or the Celtic forms are the original.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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tun (plural tuns)

  1. A large cask; an oblong vessel bulging in the middle, like a pipe or puncheon, and girt with hoops; a wine cask. (See a diagram comparing cask sizes.)
  2. (brewing) A fermenting vat.
  3. (historical) A traditional unit of liquid measure equal to 252 wine gallons or 2 pipes.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, page 205:
      Again, by 28 Hen. VIII, cap. 14, it is re-enacted that the tun of wine should contain 252 gallons, a butt of Malmsey 126 gallons, a pipe 126 gallons, a tercian or puncheon 84 gallons, a hogshead 63 gallons, a tierce 41 gallons, a barrel 31.5 gallons, a rundlet 18.5 gallons.
  4. Synonym of long ton: a unit of mass equal to 2240 pounds, 20 hundredweights of 112 pounds avoirdupois each.
  5. (figurative) Synonym of ton: any extremely or excessively large amount.
    • 1599 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Life of Henry the Fift”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act I, scene ii]:
      He therefore sends you, meeter for your spirit, / This tun of treasure; and, in lieu of this, / Desires you let the dukedoms that you claim / Hear no more of you.
    • 1682, John Dryden, Mac Flecknoe, lines 195–196:
      A Tun of Man in thy Large bulk is writ, / But sure thou'rt but a Kilderkin of wit.
  6. (archaic, humorous or derogatory) Synonym of drunkard: a person who drinks excessively.
  7. Any shell belonging to Tonna and allied genera.
  8. The cryptobiotic state of a tardigrade, when its metabolism is temporarily suspended.
Derived terms
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Translations
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Verb

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tun (third-person singular simple present tuns, present participle tunning, simple past and past participle tunned)

  1. (transitive) To put into tuns, or casks.
    • 1843, Mary Holland, The Complete Economical Cook, and Frugal Housewife[1], 14th edition, page 407:
      Strong beer that is brewed in small quantities, and ale, whatever the quantity may be, should be tunned the second day after brewing; and small beer should be tunned as soon as it has fairly taken the yeast

Etymology 2

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Mayan. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Noun

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tun (plural tuns)

  1. A part of the ancient Maya Long Count Calendar system which corresponds to 18 winal cycles or 360 days.

See also

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Anagrams

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Aromanian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Latin tonō. Compare Romanian tuna, tun.

Verb

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tun first-singular present indicative (past participle tunatã)

  1. to thunder
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Bambara

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Adverb

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tun

  1. again

Dalmatian

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Etymology

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From Latin tonus, from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos). Compare Italian tuono, Friulian ton, Catalan tro, Romansch tun, tung, Romanian tun, tunet, Spanish trueno.

Noun

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tun m

  1. thunderclap, thunder

Danish

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Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology 1

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A contraction of tunfisk, from German Thunfisch (tuna), from Latin thunnus, from Ancient Greek θύννος (thúnnos).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Noun

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tun c (singular definite tunen, plural indefinite tun)

  1. tuna
  2. tuna fish
  3. tun
Inflection
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Etymology 2

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From Old Norse tún, from Proto-Germanic *tūną, from Proto-Celtic *dūnom.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Noun

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tun n (singular definite tunet, plural indefinite tun)

  1. (dated) An enclosed piece of ground.
Inflection
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Etymology 3

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See tune.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /tuːn/, [tˢuːˀn]

Verb

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tun

  1. imperative of tune

Fula

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adjective

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tun

  1. (Pular) only

Usage notes

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  • Other varieties of Fula use tan.

Adverb

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tun

  1. (Pular) only

Usage notes

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  • Other varieties of Fula use tan.

References

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German

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Middle High German tuon, from Old High German tuon, from Proto-West Germanic *dōn, from Proto-Germanic *dōną, derived from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (to put, set, place). Cognate with English do.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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tun (irregular, third-person singular present tut, past tense tat, past participle getan, past subjunctive täte, auxiliary haben)

  1. To do (to perform or execute an action).
    Synonym: machen
    Tu es!Do it!
    Man tut, was man kann.One does what one can.
    Er tat das, was man ihm gesagt hat.He did as he was told.
    Das einzige, was er je tat, war arbeiten.The only thing he ever did was work.
  2. (with dative) To do something (positive or negative) to someone.
    Synonym: antun
    Der tut Ihnen nichts!He won't hurt you! (said for example about a dog)
    Mein Mann hat mir so viel Gutes getan.My husband has done me so much good.
  3. (reflexive, with an indefinite pronoun) To make a difference; to be different.
    Synonym: unterscheiden
    Tut sich das viel?Does that make much of a difference?
    Die beiden Kameras tun sich nichts.The two cameras are no different [i.e. neither better than the other].
  4. (somewhat informal, with “so” or “als ob) To fake; to feign; to pretend.
    Synonyms: vortäuschen, täuschen, vorgeben
    Er hat nur so getan.He just faked it.
    Er tut, als ob er nichts wüsste.He pretends to know nothing.
  5. (chiefly colloquial) To put, to place, to add.
    Synonyms: setzen, legen, stellen, platzieren, hinzufügen
    Tu das hier rein.Put it in here.
    Ich würde noch was Salz an die Kartoffeln tun.I would add some more salt to the potatoes.
    • 2017, Simone Meier, Fleisch, Kein & Aber, page 27:
      » Ich finds eklig, wenn du die Butter am Morgen nicht direkt aufs Brot streichst, sondern immer zuerst auf einen Teller tust. «
      I find it disgusting when you don't spread your butter straight on to your bread in the morning, but always put it on the plate first.
  6. (chiefly colloquial, with “es) To work, to function.
    Synonym: funktionieren
    Die Uhr tut’s nicht mehr.The clock doesn’t work anymore.
  7. (chiefly colloquial, but acceptable in writing) Used with the preceding infinitive of another verb to emphasise this verb
    Er singt immer noch gern, aber tanzen tut er gar nicht mehr.
    He still loves singing, but as to dancing, he doesn't do that anymore at all.
  8. (colloquial, nonstandard) Used with the following infinitive of another verb, often to emphasise the statement
    Ich tu doch zuhören!I am listening! (as a response to the reproach that one is not)
    Ich tu das jetzt mal aufräumen.I’m cleaning this up now.
  9. (colloquial, nonstandard) Used in the past subjunctive with the infinitive of another verb to form the conditional tense (instead of standard würde)
    Ich tät mir das noch mal überlegen.I would think about that again.

Usage notes

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  • The verb tun in the sense of “to perform” is not used in combination with nouns. This function is covered by the verb machen: ich mache Sport, wir machen ein Spiel, er macht die Wäsche (“I do sport, we do a game, he does the laundry”). The same is true with pronouns that represent such nouns: Wer macht die Wäsche? – Ich mache sie. (“Who does the laundry? – I do it.”) It is usually ungrammatical to use tun in sentences like these.
Tun is only used with pronouns that represent actions as a whole: Was tust du? (“What are you doing?”) Ich tue viel für die Umwelt. (“I do a lot for the environment.”) Er tut alles, was sie sagt. (“He does everything she says.”)
  • (colloquial, nonstandard): The use of do-support is a feature of several dialects and minority languages in Germany. In the standard language, it is most established along the Rhine. It is somewhat more acceptable when used for emphasis (as in the example with zuhören above), but is otherwise often regarded as illiterate (as in the example with aufräumen). This latter usage is generally associated with lower socio-economic status.

Conjugation

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  • The 1st person singular present indicative may also be (ich) tu.

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • tun” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • tun” in Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Lexikon
  • tun” in OpenThesaurus.de
  • tun” in Duden online
  • tun” in Duden online

Hausa

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Pronunciation

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Preposition

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tun

  1. since, ever since

Hlai

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Hlai *tʰun (language), from Pre-Hlai *tun (Norquest, 2015).

Noun

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tun

  1. speech; words; language
  2. folk song
  3. dispute; controversy

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Hlai *tʰu[n/ɲ] (to reap), from Pre-Hlai *tu[n/ɲ] (Norquest, 2015).

Verb

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tun

  1. To reap.

Inari Sami

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Etymology

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From Proto-Samic *tonë.

Pronunciation

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  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Pronoun

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tun (genitive tuu)

  1. you (singular)

See also

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Inari Sami personal pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person mun muoi mij
2nd person tun tuoi tij
3rd person sun suoi sij

Further reading

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  • tun in Marja-Liisa Olthuis, Taarna Valtonen, Miina Seurujärvi and Trond Trosterud (2015–2022) Nettidigisäänih Anarâškiela-suomakielâ-anarâškielâ sänikirje[2], Tromsø: UiT
  • Koponen, Eino, Ruppel, Klaas, Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008), Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[3], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Javanese

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Alternative forms

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Javanese writing system
Carakan ꦠꦸꦤ꧀
Roman tun (standard), toen (outdated)

Etymology

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Inherited from Old Javanese tun (desire, love, attach).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /tʊn/
  • Hyphenation: tun

Noun

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tun

  1. desire

Kemi Sami

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Etymology

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From Proto-Samic *tonë.

Compare Inari Sami tun and Skolt Sami ton.

Pronoun

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tun (genitive tu)

  1. thou, you
    • 1889, A. Genetz, Journal de la Société finno-ougrienne (VII), Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Kirjapainossa, page 116:
      Kulnaſaſz, niraſam, kätze, åinakåſz tun ſu salm.
      Kulnasasz, my reindeer, look: do you see her eyes?

Mandarin

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Romanization

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tun

  1. Nonstandard spelling of tūn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of tún.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of tǔn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of tùn.

Usage notes

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  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Mapudungun

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Verb

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tun (Raguileo spelling)

  1. To catch.

Conjugation

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Middle English

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Noun

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tun

  1. Alternative form of toun

Norman

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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tun m (plural tuns)

  1. (Jersey) tuft

Synonyms

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Norwegian Nynorsk

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Etymology

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From Old Norse tún. Akin to English town.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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tun n (definite singular tunet, indefinite plural tun, definite plural tuna)

  1. courtyard, front yard (the area in front of, around or between houses, particularly on a farm)
    • 1996, Jon Fosse, Nokon kjem til å komme:
      I tunet framfor eit gammalt ganske forfallent hus []
      In the front yard in front of an old, rather dilapidated house []
  2. farmstead (a collection of buildings and the area between them on a farm)

References

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Old English

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Etymology

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From Proto-West Germanic *tūn, from Proto-Germanic *tūną (enclosure).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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tūn m

  1. an enclosed piece of ground, an enclosure or garden
  2. the enclosed ground belonging to an individual dwelling
  3. the group of houses on an area of enclosed land, a homestead
  4. a village or town

Declension

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Derived terms

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  • dūn (hill, mountain)

Descendants

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Old French

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Pronoun

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tun m (feminine ta)

  1. (Anglo-Norman) your (second-person singular possessive pronoun)

Synonyms

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  • vostre (second-person plural form)

Romanian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin tonus (the original meaning being "thunderclap", as with the Romance cognates). See also the doublet ton (tone), borrowed through French.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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tun n (plural tunuri)

  1. cannon
  2. (archaic, popular) thunderclap
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Romansch

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Latin tonus.

Noun

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tun m

  1. sound
  2. thunder

Spanish

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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tun m (plural tunes)

  1. a Pre-Hispanic percussion instrument from Guatemala, consisting of a hollow wooden block with slits in the sides

Further reading

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Swedish

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Etymology

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From Old Norse tún, from Proto-Germanic *tūną, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewh₂- (to finish, come full circle). Cognate with Danish tun (enclosed area), Icelandic tún (hayfield), Norwegian Nynorsk tun (farmstead; courtyard), English town, German Zaun (fence), German Low German Tuun (fence), Dutch tuin (garden).

Noun

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tun n

  1. (archaic, dialectal) courtyard (an area surrounded by buildings)

Declension

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Declension of tun 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tun tunet tun tunen
Genitive tuns tunets tuns tunens

Noun

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tun c

  1. (Gotland) fence

Declension

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Declension of tun 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tun tunen tunar tunarna
Genitive tuns tunens tunars tunarnas

Derived terms

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Tetum

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *tuRun, compare Malay turun.

Verb

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tun

  1. To descend.

Uzbek

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Other scripts
Cyrillic тун (tun)
Latin tun
Perso-Arabic

Noun

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tun (plural tunlar)

  1. night

Welsh

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Chemical element
Sn
Previous: indiwm (In)
Next: antimoni (Sb)
 
Welsh Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cy
 
Defnyn o dun tawdd
 
Tun gwag

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From English tin, from Middle English tin, from Old English tin, from Proto-West Germanic *tin, from Proto-Germanic *tiną.

Pronunciation

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Usage notes

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Despite being a single syllable word ending in un, the vowel in this borrowed word is short due as in the donor language. This stands in contrast to native words and earlier borrowings which are spelt the same vowel-consonant combination but contain long vowels, such as bun, clun, hun and llun.

Noun

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tun m (plural tuniau or tunnau)

  1. tin (metal)
    Synonyms: alcam, ystaen
  2. tin (metal container), tin can
    Synonym: can

Derived terms

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Mutation

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Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
tun dun nhun thun
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

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  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “tun”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yámana

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Noun

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tun

  1. tooth