See also: , , and 𠄔
U+4E88, 予
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E88

[U+4E87]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E89]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 6, +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓弓 (NINN), four-corner 17202, composition𠄐)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №127

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 85, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 231
  • Dae Jaweon: page 174, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 52, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E88

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Two hands, each handing an object to another.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-la (to pay; to give for).

PronunciationEdit


Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/iɔX/
Wang
Li
/jĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English give; together with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15739
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (= ) to give
  2. to praise; to esteem

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 









𢗝

“by”
“to allow; to cause”
使 “to cause”
“to cause”
Quanzhou

(OC *laʔ) is often considered to be the original character (Lin, 1998, 1999; Mei, 2007); Taiwan's Ministry of Education considers the cognate (OC *laʔ) to be the original character. In either case, this would be the same word as etymology 1.

Alternatively, Zhao (1991) argues that this is a Kra-Dai substrate, suggesting a borrowing from Proto-Tai *haɰᶜ (to give), whence Zhuang hawj (to give; to allow) and Bouyei haec (to give; to allow). Note that the Tai word has been connected to Middle Chinese (MC hɨʌX, “to allow”) (Manomaivibool, 1975). On the other hand, Zheng (2008) considers both the Hokkien word and the Kra-Dai word to be derived from .

Assuming to be the etymon, there are also various theories on the development of the h- initial:

Sagart (2017c) considers to be a problematic etymon but agrees with the third theory on the development of h- above. He suggests that a possible trigger for the change from /tʰ/ to /h/ is that /tʰɔ/ is often used with /kʰit/, allowing /kʰit tʰɔ/ to be reanalysed as /kʰit hɔ/.

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Hokkien) to give
    [Hokkien]  ―  I hō͘ góa gō͘ kho͘. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He gave me five dollars.
  2. (Teochew) to deliver; to give
  3. (Hokkien) to allow
    [Hokkien]  ―  Hō͘ i khì! [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Let it go!
  4. (Hokkien) to cause; to make
  5. (Hokkien, Teochew) by (used in constructing the passive)
    [Hokkien]  ―  I hō͘ lâng phah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He was beaten up (by someone).
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English I, we

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15738
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “I, me”).
  2. A surname​.
SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“relaxed; comfortable; at ease; etc.”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified and variant form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 5Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“beforehand; to take part in; etc.”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Further readingEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. beforehand, in advance

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

() (yo (kyūjitai )

  1. first-person personal pronoun; I, me
    • 1802-1814: Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige (volume 1)
      此街道に毫をはせて膝栗毛の書を著す。
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

ReferencesEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eum (yeo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nhừ,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit