U+542B, 含
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-542B

[U+542A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+542C]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓口 (OINR), four-corner 80602, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 178, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 395, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 592, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+542B

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡɯːm): phonetic (OC *krɯm) + semantic (mouth).

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gam (to put into mouth; to seize with mouth) (STEDT); cognate with Tibetan འགམ་པ ('gam pa, to put into the mouth), Proto-Tani *g(j)am (bite).

Within Chinese, cognate with (OC *ɡuːm, *ɡruːm, “to contain; box; letter”) (Schuessler, 2007). (OC *ɡraːm, “to carry in the mouth; horse's bit”) is probably related. Bodman (1980) considers (OC *ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ) to be the endoactive of (OC *ɡɯːm, “to hold in the mouth”), literally “the thing that holds something in the mouth”.

PronunciationEdit


Note: hén - "to hold or keep; to hold or keep in the mouth".
Note:
  • gàng - vernacular;
  • hàng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kâm/kâⁿ - vernacular;
    • hâm - literary.
    Note:
    • kam5 - vernacular;
    • ham5 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xan³⁵/
    Harbin /xan²⁴/
    Tianjin /xan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xã⁴²/
    Qingdao /xã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xan⁴²/
    Xi'an /xã²⁴/
    Xining /xã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xan²¹³/
    Chengdu /xan³¹/
    Guiyang /xan²¹/
    Kunming /xã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /xaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xæ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /xɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦø³¹/
    /gaŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xɛ⁴⁴/
    /kʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /xan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /hɵn²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /ham¹¹/
    Taoyuan /hɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐm²¹/
    Nanning /hɐm²¹/
    Hong Kong /hɐm²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ham³⁵/
    /kam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ham⁵⁵/
    /kam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ham³¹/
    /kam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʌm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɒm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəm/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣᴀm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɒm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ham4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-m-kˁ[ə]m/
    English hold in the mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6560
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡɯːm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to hold or keep in the mouth
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ham4 zyu6 zi1 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to hold a cigarette in the mouth
    2. to bear; to endure
    3. to contain inside; to comprise; to include
      油漆 / 油漆  ―  hánqiān yóuqī  ―  lead paint
      眼裡 / 眼里  ―  yǎnlǐ hánzhe lèi  ―  tears in the eyes
    4. to harbor (emotion); to nurse; to endure; to hold back
        ―  hánhèn  ―  to nurse hatred
    5. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    • (to hold in the mouth): (xián)

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Exoactive or causative of etymology 1 (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with (OC *ɡɯːms, “to resent”).

    PronunciationEdit



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ homH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-m-[k]ˁ[ə]m-s/
    English to put in the mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (hán, “gems and pearls stuffed into a corpse's mouth”).
    2. to put gems and pearls into a corpse's mouth

    Etymology 3Edit

    Ultimately from Hebrew חָם‎.

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (biblical) Ham
      語系 / 语系  ―  Shǎn-Hán yǔxì  ―  Semito-Hamitic language family

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

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    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 머금을 (meogeumeul ham))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: hàm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.