See also: and
U+7559, 留
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7559

[U+7558]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+755A]
U+F9CD, 留
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9CD

[U+F9CC]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9CE]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 102, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹竹田 (HHW), four-corner 77602, composition ⿱⿰𠂎)

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 761, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21808
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1171, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2537, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7559

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

In bronze inscriptions, phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *m·ru, *m·rus): phonetic (OC *mruːʔ) + semantic (field). Later in small seal script, phonetic (OC *luʔ) + semantic .

Pronunciation 1 edit

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms


Note: liù - "belly fat".
Note:
  • lâu - vernacular;
  • liû - literary.
Note:
  • liu5 - literary;
  • lao5 - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ljuw
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /luw/
    Li
    Rong
    /liu/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯ə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liú
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lau4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liú
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljuw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ru/
    English stay, remain

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 8882
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·ru/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. to stay; to remain
    2. to ask someone to stay; to detain
    3. to keep; to save; to hold in reserve; to retain; to maintain
    4. to leave behind (a package, a message, an impression, etc.)
      可以電話 [MSC, trad.]
      可以电话 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ kěyǐ gěi wǒ liú ge diànhuà ma? [Pinyin]
      Can you give me your phone number?
    5. Short for 留學留学 (liúxué, “to study abroad”).
        ―  liúměi  ―  to study in the US
    6. to accept (a gift)
    7. to allow to grow
      鬍子胡子  ―  liú húzi  ―  to grow a beard
      頭髮 [Cantonese, trad.]
      头发 [Cantonese, simp.]
      zoeng1 tau4 faat3 lau4 dou3 lok6 jiu1 [Jyutping]
      have one's hair grow to waist-length
      頭髮头发 [Cantonese]  ―  lau4 coeng4 tau4 faat3 [Jyutping]  ―  to let one's hair grow long
    8. to concentrate (on something)
        ―  liúxīn  ―  to look out for
        ―  liúshén  ―  to take care; to be careful
    9. Alternative form of (liú)
    10. a surname

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms 𢕍
    𢔲



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ljuwH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liəuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /luwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /liuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭəuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯ə̯uH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liù
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lau6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 8905
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m·rus/

    Definitions edit

    1. (archaic) to wait; to await

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 3 edit

    simp. and trad.


    Definitions edit

    1. Alternative name for (mǎo).

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. detain
    2. fasten
    3. halt
    4. stop
    5. ateji (当て字) for ruble (unit of currency)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 머무를 (meomureul ryu), South Korea 머무를 (meomureul yu))

    1. Hanja form? of / (stay).

    Compounds edit

    Old Korean edit

    Alternative forms edit

    • (logographic variant used in Idu and Gugyeol texts)

    Particle edit

    (*-lwo)

    1. to; towards (directional case marker)
    2. by; with; using (instrumental case marker)

    Usage notes edit

    留 takes the vowel-initial allomorph 乙留 or 乙以 after a consonant, corresponding exactly to the Middle and Modern Korean allomorph 으로 (Yale: ulo) also appearing after a consonant.

    Reconstruction notes edit

    Conventionally reconstructed as *-lwo after the Middle Korean reflex, although the source Chinese readings suggest a different vowel. Many scholars suggest *-lwu instead.

    Descendants edit

    • Middle Korean: (-lwo)
      • Korean: (ro)

    References edit

    • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae) (2000), “차자표기 자료의 격조사 연구 [Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo gungmunhak, volume 127, pages 107–132
    • 박지용 外 (Park Ji-yong et al.) (2012) 향가 해독 자료집 [A Sourcebook of Hyangga Interpretations], Seoul National University, pages 199—200

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lưu

    1. to stay
    2. to detain; keep
    3. (computing); to save files