See also:
U+8A31, 許
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A31

[U+8A30]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A32]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 149, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人十 (YROJ), four-corner 08640, composition )

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1151, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35298
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1618, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3946, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8A31

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *hŋaʔ) : semantic (speech; words) + phonetic (OC *ŋaːʔ).

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp.
“place”
Related to (OC *s-qʰ<r>aʔ, “place; that which”), (OC *t.qʰaʔ, “to be at”), (OC *t.qʰaʔ-s, “place”) (Baxter and Sagart, 2014; also cf. Pan and Tao, 1999).

Pronunciation

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Note: literary.
Note: literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕy²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɕy²¹³/
Tianjin /ɕy¹³/
Jinan /ɕy⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ɕy⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɕy⁵³/
Xi'an /ɕy⁵³/
Xining /ɕy⁵³/
Yinchuan /ɕy⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕy⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ɕy⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕy⁴²/
Chengdu /ɕy⁵³/
Guiyang /ɕi⁴²/
Kunming /ɕi⁵³/
Nanjing /ɕy²¹²/
Hefei /sz̩ʷ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕy⁵³/
Pingyao /ɕy⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕy⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɕy³⁵/
Suzhou /ɕy⁵¹/
Hangzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ɕy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕy³⁵/
Tunxi /ɕy³¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕy⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ɕy⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕy²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hi³¹/
Taoyuan /hi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³⁵/
Nanning /hy³⁵/
Hong Kong /høy³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hu⁵³/
/kʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hy³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xy²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /hɯ⁵³/
/kʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hu²¹³/
/xɔu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter xjoX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/xiɔX/
Wang
Li
/xĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
heoi2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰ(r)aʔ/
English place (n.); allow

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13180
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hŋaʔ/

Definitions

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  1. to allow; to permit
      ―  zhǐ kàn, bù chī  ―  it is only permitted to look at it but not to eat it
  2. to promise
    承諾承诺  ―  xià chéngnuò  ―  to make a promise
  3. to betroth
    我們姑娘已經人家兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
    我们姑娘已经人家儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
    Wǒmen jiā gūniang yǐjīng le rénjiar le. [Pinyin]
    Our miss has already been betrothed.
  4. to praise
      ―  chēng  ―  to praise
  5. maybe; perhaps
  6. (literary) approximately
    下午下午  ―  xiàwǔ sān shí   ―  about 3 pm
  7. so; such
      ―  jiǔ  ―  a long time
  8. (literary) place

Compounds

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Descendants

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  • Vietnamese: hứa (to promise)

Etymology 2

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trad.
simp.

Originally written as (OC *hmaʔ), 𱢬 (among others) in pre-Qin texts. By the Han dynasty, it was homophonic with and written as , originally meaning “to allow; to promise”, due to voiceless nasals losing nasality, turning into x- (Zhang, 2022b).

Pronunciation

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Note: vernacular.
Note: vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕy²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɕy²¹³/
Tianjin /ɕy¹³/
Jinan /ɕy⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ɕy⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɕy⁵³/
Xi'an /ɕy⁵³/
Xining /ɕy⁵³/
Yinchuan /ɕy⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕy⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ɕy⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕy⁴²/
Chengdu /ɕy⁵³/
Guiyang /ɕi⁴²/
Kunming /ɕi⁵³/
Nanjing /ɕy²¹²/
Hefei /sz̩ʷ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕy⁵³/
Pingyao /ɕy⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕy⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɕy³⁵/
Suzhou /ɕy⁵¹/
Hangzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ɕy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕy³⁵/
Tunxi /ɕy³¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕy⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ɕy⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕy²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hi³¹/
Taoyuan /hi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³⁵/
Nanning /hy³⁵/
Hong Kong /høy³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hu⁵³/
/kʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hy³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xy²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /hɯ⁵³/
/kʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hu²¹³/
/xɔu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter xjoX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/xiɔX/
Wang
Li
/xĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
heoi2
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13180
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hŋaʔ/

Definitions

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  1. a surname
      ―  Shèn  ―  Xu Shen (author of Shuowen Jiezi)

Compounds

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Descendants

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Etymology 3

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trad.
simp.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds

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Etymology 4

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trad.
simp.

Zheng (2017) suggests that it is from (OC *njelʔ, “that”). Compare (OC *njɯʔ, “ear”) > Min Nan .

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • hu2 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai;
  • hi2 - Lufeng, Haifeng.

    Definitions

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    1. (Gan, Min, Wu) that
    Synonyms
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    Japanese

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    Kanji

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    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. permit
    2. approve
    3. place below, vicinity

    Readings

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    Compounds

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    Noun

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    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    もと1
    [noun] the lower portion, base
    [noun] under the influence of
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean

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    Hanja

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    (eumhun 허락할 (heorakhal heo))

    1. Hanja form? of (approve).

    Compounds

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    Vietnamese

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    Han character

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    : Hán Nôm readings: hứa, hớ, hở, hử, hữ, ngỏ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.