See also:
U+8A31, 許
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A31

[U+8A30]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A32]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 149, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人十 (YROJ), four-corner 08640, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1151, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35298
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1618, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3946, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8A31

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hŋaʔ): semantic  (speech; words) + phonetic  (OC *ŋaːʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hī - vernacular;
  • hṳ̄ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hú/hír/hí - literary;
    • khó͘ - vernacular (surname).
    Note:
    • he2 - literary;
    • kou2 - vernacular (surname).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕy²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ɕy²¹³/
    Tianjin /ɕy¹³/
    Jinan /ɕy⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ɕy⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ɕy⁵³/
    Xi'an /ɕy⁵³/
    Xining /ɕy⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ɕy⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕy⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ɕy⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕy⁴²/
    Chengdu /ɕy⁵³/
    Guiyang /ɕi⁴²/
    Kunming /ɕi⁵³/
    Nanjing /ɕy²¹²/
    Hefei /sz̩ʷ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕy⁵³/
    Pingyao /ɕy⁵³/
    Hohhot /ɕy⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕy³⁵/
    Suzhou /ɕy⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ɕy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ɕy³⁵/
    Tunxi /ɕy³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕy⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ɕy⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕy²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /hi³¹/
    Taoyuan /hi³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³⁵/
    Nanning /hy³⁵/
    Hong Kong /høy³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hu⁵³/
    /kʰɔ⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hy³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xy²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hɯ⁵³/
    /kʰou⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hu²¹³/
    /xɔu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /xiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰ(r)aʔ/
    English place (n.); allow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13180
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hŋaʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to allow; to permit
    2. to promise
    3. to betroth
      我們姑娘已經人家兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      我们姑娘已经人家儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Wǒmen jiā gūniang yǐjīng le rénjiar le. [Pinyin]
      Our miss has already been betrothed.
    4. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Tagalog: Co, Ko (via Hokkien)

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.
      This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Relevant discussions: 汉语方言指示词“尔”的共时分布与历史来源; 幾個閩語語法成份的時間層次”

    PronunciationEdit


    Note:
    • hu2 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai;
    • hi2 - Lufeng, Haifeng.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Gan, Min, Wu) that
    SynonymsEdit

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. permit
    2. approve

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (heo, ho) (hangeul , , revised Hur, heo, ho, McCune–Reischauer hŏ, ho, Yale he, ho)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: hứa, hớ, hở, hử, hữ, ngỏ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.