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See also:
U+8A31, 許
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A31

[U+8A30]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A32]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 149, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人十 (YROJ), four-corner 08640, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1151, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35298
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1618, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3946, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8A31

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sŋjaːs
*hŋaːŋʔ
*hŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːʔ
*ŋaːs
*ŋaːs
*ŋ̊ʰjaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ
*ŋaʔ, *ŋas
*hŋaʔ
*ŋas

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hŋaʔ): semantic  (speech; words) + phonetic  (OC *ŋaːʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hī - vernacular;
  • hṳ̄ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hú/hír/hí - literary;
    • khó͘ - vernacular (surname).
    Note:
    • he2 - literary;
    • kou2 - vernacular (surname).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕy²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ɕy²¹³/
    Tianjin /ɕy¹³/
    Jinan /ɕy⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ɕy⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ɕy⁵³/
    Xi'an /ɕy⁵³/
    Xining /ɕy⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ɕy⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕy⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ɕy⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕy⁴²/
    Chengdu /ɕy⁵³/
    Guiyang /ɕi⁴²/
    Kunming /ɕi⁵³/
    Nanjing /ɕy²¹²/
    Hefei /sz̩ʷ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕy⁵³/
    Pingyao /ɕy⁵³/
    Hohhot /ɕy⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕy³⁵/
    Suzhou /ɕy⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ɕy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ɕy³⁵/
    Tunxi /ɕy³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕy⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ɕy⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕy²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /hi³¹/
    Taoyuan /hi³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³⁵/
    Nanning /hy³⁵/
    Hong Kong /høy³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hu⁵³/
    /kʰɔ⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hy³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xy²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hɯ⁵³/
    /kʰou⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hu²¹³/
    /xɔu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /xiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰ(r)aʔ/
    English place (n.); allow

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13180
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hŋaʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to allow; to permit
    2. to promise
    3. to betroth
      我們姑娘已經人家兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      我们姑娘已经人家儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Wǒmen jiā gūniang yǐjīng le rénjiar le. [Pinyin]
      Our miss has already been betrothed.
    4. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Tagalog: Co, Ko (via Hokkien)

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.
      This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Relevant discussions: 汉语方言指示词“尔”的共时分布与历史来源; 幾個閩語語法成份的時間層次”

    PronunciationEdit


    Note:
    • hu2 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai;
    • hi2 - Lufeng, Haifeng.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Gan, Min, Wu) that
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of (“that”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan , 𡃕
    Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen ,
    Quanzhou ,
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Wenzhou

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. permit
    2. approve

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (heo, ho) (hangeul , , revised Hur, heo, ho, McCune–Reischauer hŏ, ho, Yale he, ho)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hứa, hớ, hở, hử, hữ, ngỏ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.